## Advanced Interference Suppression Techniques for Spread Spectrum Systems (2009)

On Adaptive MMSE Receiver Strategies for TD-CDMA

In this thesis a modified implementation of the adaptive minimum mean squared error (MMSE) receiver for a time division code division multiple access (TD-CDMA) system for third generation mobile communications is presented. This implementation can operate with spreading sequences which span over a few symbols and in environments where more than one spreading code is allocated to a single user. Two structures which combine the presented MMSE structure and the Rake receiver are also presented in an attempt to combine the advantages of both structures. After analysing the effect on a direct sequence spread spectrum system of multiple access interference and multipath fading induced inter-chip interference, the existing techniques for multiple access interference suppression capabilities are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the adaptive MMSE receiver, which takes into account the effect of multipath fading without requiring any additional channel ...

Garcia-Alis, Daniel — University of Strathclyde

Efficient Interference Suppression and Resource Allocation in MIMO and DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

Direct-sequence code-divisionmultiple-access (DS-CDMA) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless networks form the physical layer of the current generation of mobile networks and are anticipated to play a key role in the next generation of mobile networks. The improvements in capacity, data-rates and robustness that these networks provide come at the cost of increasingly complex interference suppression and resource allocation. Consequently, efficient approaches to these tasks are essential if the current rate of progression in mobile technology is to be sustained. In this thesis, linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE) techniques for interference suppression and resource allocation in DS-CDMA and cooperative MIMO networks are considered and a set of novel and efficient algorithms proposed. Firstly, set-membership (SM) reduced-rank techniques for interference suppression in DS-CDMA systems are investigated. The principals of SM filtering are applied to the adaptation of the projection matrix and reduced-rank ...

Patrick Clarke — University of York

Nonlinear receivers for DS-CDMA

The growing demand for capacity in wireless communications is the driving force behind improving established networks and the deployment of a new worldwide mobile standard. Capacity calculations show that the direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) technique has more capacity than the time division multiple access technique. Therefore, most 3rd generation mobile systems will incorporate some sort of DS-CDMA. In this thesis DS-CDMA receiver structures are investigated from the view point of pattern recognition which leads to new DS-CDMA receiver structures. It is known that the optimum DS-CDMA receiver has a nonlinear structure with prohibitive complexity for practical implementation. It is also known that the currently implemented receiver in 2nd generation DSCDMA mobile handsets has poor performance, because it suffers from multiuser interference. Consequently, this work focuses on sub-optimum nonlinear receivers for DS-CDMA in the downlink scenario. First, the ...

Tanner, Rudolf — University Of Edinburgh

Signal Processing Algorithms for CDMA-Based Wireless Communications

Wireless communication systems rely on a multiple-access technique, i.e., a mechanism to divide the common transmission medium among di erent users. Code-division multiple-access (CDMA) is a multiple-access technique that has received considerable attention in recent years. In a CDMA system, each user spreads his information-bearing signal into a wideband signal, using speci c code information. All users then transmit their wideband signal within the same frequency and time channel. This thesis deals with the development of receivers for various CDMA systems. Digital signal processing plays a central role in this development. In recent literature, so-called multi-user receivers have become very popular. These receivers take into account the full structure of the multi-user interfer- ence (MUI), i.e., the interference originating from the other users. However, they have a rather high computational complexity. In the rst part of this the- sis, we ...

Leus, Geert — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Multiuser demodulation for DS-CDMA systems in fading channels

Multiuser demodulation algorithms for centralized receivers of asynchronous direct-sequence (DS) spread-spectrum code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems in frequency-selective fading channels are studied. Both DS-CDMA systems with short (one symbol interval) and long (several symbol intervals) spreading sequences are considered. Linear multiuser receivers process ideally the complete received data block. The approximation of ideal infinite memory-length (IIR) linear multiuser detectors by finite memory-length (FIR) detectors is studied. It is shown that the FIR detectors can be made near-far resistant under a given ratio between maximum and minimum received power of users by selecting an appropriate memory-length. Numerical examples demonstrate the fact that moderate memory-lengths of the FIR detectors are sufficient to achieve the performance of the ideal IIR detectors even under severe near-far conditions. Multiuser demodulation in relatively fast fading channels is analyzed. The optimal maximum likelihood sequence detection receiver and suboptimal ...

Juntti, Markku — University of Oulou

Adaptive interference suppression algorithms for DS-UWB systems

In multiuser ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, a large number of multipath components (MPCs) are introduced by the channel. One of the main challenges for the receiver is to effectively suppress the interference with affordable complexity. In this thesis, we focus on the linear adaptive interference suppression algorithms for the direct-sequence ultrawideband (DS-UWB) systems in both time-domain and frequency-domain. In the time-domain, symbol by symbol transmission multiuser DS-UWB systems are considered. We first investigate a generic reduced-rank scheme based on the concept of joint and iterative optimization (JIO) that jointly optimizes a projection vector and a reduced-rank filter by using the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) criterion. A low-complexity scheme, named Switched Approximations of Adaptive Basis Functions (SAABF), is proposed as a modification of the generic scheme, in which the complexity reduction is achieved by using a multi-branch framework to simplify the structure ...

Sheng Li — University of York

Near Maximum Likelihood Multiuser Receivers for Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access

Wideband wireless access based on direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA) has been adopted for third-generation mobile communications systems. Hence, DS-CDMA downlink communications systems form the platform for the work in this thesis. The principles of the spread spectrum concept and DS-CDMA technology are first outlined, including a description of the system model and the conventional receiver. The two classes of codes used in this system, namely spreading codes and forward error correction codes (including Turbo codes), are discussed. Due to the fact that practical communications channels are non-ideal, the performance of an individual user is interference limited. As a result, the capacity of the system is greatly restricted. Fortunately, multiuser detection is a scheme that can effectively counteract this multiple access interference. However, the optimum multiuser detection scheme is far too computationally intensive for practical use. Hence, the fundamental interest ...

Sim, Hak Keong — University Of Edinburgh

Adaptive Equalisation for Downlink UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

The third generation mobile system Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) has been mainly specified to provide various multimedia capabilities and good service quality. However, since UMTS is based on direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) techniques the performance and the capacity of such systems is significantly limited by multiuser access interference (MAI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI). Therefore, robust and reliable detectors are required to mitigate these effects. Specifically, the multi-user detector exhibits a significant improvement in capacity and spectrum efficiency compared with the conventional matched filter receiver and single-user detector. Nevertheless, its complexity and prior knowledge requirement render it unsuitable for application in the downlink due to handset constraints. In this thesis, we propose a new robust and simple blind multiuser equaliser for downlink DS-CDMA systems, the so-called filtered-R multiple error CM algorithm (FIRMER-CMA) equaliser. The latter has ...

Hadef, Mahmoud — University of Southampton

Statistical Physics Approach to Design and Analysis of Multiuser Systems Under Channel Uncertainty

Code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with random spreading and channel uncertainty at the receiver are studied. Frequency selective single antenna, as well as, narrowband multiple antenna channels are considered. Rayleigh fading is assumed in all cases. General Bayesian approach is used to derive both iterative and non-iterative estimators whose performance is obtained in the large system limit via the replica method from statistical physics. The effect of spatial correlation on the performance of a multiple antenna CDMA system operating in a flat-fading channel is studied. Per-antenna spreading (PAS) with random signature sequences and spatial multiplexing is used at the transmitter. Non-iterative multiuser detectors (MUDs) using imperfect channel state information (CSI) are derived. Training symbol based channel estimators having mismatched a priori knowledge about the antenna correlation are considered. Both the channel estimator and the MUD are shown to admit a simple ...

Vehkapera, Mikko — Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Multi-user Receiver Structures for Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access

This thesis reports on an investigation of various system architectures and receiver structures for cellular communications systems which discriminate users by direct sequence code division multiple access (DSCDMA). Attention is focussed on the downlink of such a spread spectrum system and the influence of a number of design parameters is considered. The objective of the thesis is to investigate signal processing techniques which may be employed either at the receiver, or throughout the system to improve the overall capacity. The principles of spread spectrum communication are first outlined, including a discussion of the relative merits of spreading sequence sets, and a description of various signal processing techniques which are to be applied to the multi-user environment. The measure of system performance is introduced, and the conventional DS-CDMA system is analysed theoretically and through simulation to provide a reference performance level. ...

Band, Ian W. — University Of Edinburgh

Low-Complexity Iterative Detection Algorithms for Multi-Antenna Systems

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques have been widely employed by dif- ferent wireless systems with many advantages. By using multiple antennas, the system is able to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously and within the same frequency band. The methods known as spatial multiplexing (SM) and spatial diversity (SD) im- proves the high spectral efficiency and link reliability of wireless communication systems without requiring additional transmitting power. By introducing channel coding in the transmission procedure, the information redundancy is introduced to further improve the reliability of SM links and the quality of service for the next generation communication systems. However, the throughput performance of these systems is limited by interference. A number of different interference suppression techniques have been reported in the literature. Theses techniques can be generally categorised into two aspects: the preprocessing techniques at the transmitter side and ...

Peng Li — University of York

Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology

The Multivariable Decision Feedback Equalizer - Multiuser Detection and Interference Rejection

The multivariable decision feedback equalizer is investigated as a tool for multiuser detection and interference rejection. Three different DFE structures are introduced. The first DFE has a non-causal feedforward filter and a causal feedback filter. We show how its parameters can be tuned to give a minimum mean-square error. The second DFE is derived under the constraint of realizability. The explicit structure and design equations for an optimum realizable minimum mean-square error DFE are obtained. The zero-forcing criterion is also considered, and conditions for the existence of a zero-forcing solution are derived. We then consider a DFE where both feedforward and feedback filters are FIR filters of predetermined degrees. We discuss the tuning procedure for obtaining the parameters of a minimum mean-square error DFE and present the conditions for the existence of a zero-forcing solution. Two specific applications are considered ...

Tidestav, Claes — Uppsala University

Study and optimization of multi-antenna systems associated with multicarrier modulations

Since several years, multi-antenna systems are foreseen as a potential solution for increasing the throughput of future wireless communication systems. The aim of this thesis is to study and to improve the transmitter and receiver's techniques of these MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems in the context of a multi-carrier transmission. On the one hand, the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex) modulation, which transform a frequency selective channel into multiple non frequency selective channels, is particularly well adapted to the conception of MIMO receivers with low complexity. On the other hand, two techniques allowing to improve the exploitation of frequential and/or temporal diversities are associated with OFDM, namely linear precoding (LP-OFDM) and CDMA in a MC-CDMA (Multicarrier Code division Multiplex Access) scheme. We have associated LP-OFDM and MC-CDMA with two MIMO techniques which require no channel state information at the ...

LE NIR, Vincent — INSA de Rennes

Study on Subband Adaptive Array for Space-Time Codes in Wideband Channel

Recently, many works have been accomplished on transmit diversity for a high-speed data transmission through the wireless channel. A Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system which employs multiple antennas at transmitter and receiver has been shown to be able to improve transmission data rate and capacity of the system. When the channel state information (CSI) is unknown at the transmitter, an multiple input single output (MISO) system combined with the transmit diversity of space time coding modulation known as space-time block coding (STBC) has taken a great attention. However, the performance of STBC is deteriorated under frequency selective fading due to inter symbol interference (ISI). An STBC employing tapped delay line adaptive array (STBC-TDLAA) is known as a solution for this problem since it utilizes the delayed signals to enhance the desired signal instead of excluding them as interferences. However, ...

Ramli, Nordin Bin — University of Electro-Communications, Japan

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