A flexible scalable video coding framework with adaptive spatio-temporal decompositions

The work presented in this thesis covers topics that extend the scalability functionalities in video coding and improve the compression performance. Two main novel approaches are presented, each targeting a different part of the scalable video coding (SVC) architecture: motion adaptive wavelet transform based on the wavelet transform in lifting implementation, and a design of a flexible framework for generalised spatio-temporal decomposition. Motion adaptive wavelet transform is based on the newly introduced concept of connectivity-map. The connectivity-map describes the underlying irregular structure of regularly sampled data. To enable a scalable representation of the connectivity-map, the corresponding analysis and synthesis operations have been derived. These are then employed to define a joint wavelet connectivity-map decomposition that serves as an adaptive alternative to the conventional wavelet decomposition. To demonstrate its applicability, the presented decomposition scheme is used in the proposed SVC framework, ...

Sprljan, Nikola — Queen Mary University of London

Fire Detection Algorithms Using Multimodal Signal and Image Analysis

Dynamic textures are common in natural scenes. Examples of dynamic textures in video include fire, smoke, clouds, volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes in infra-red (IR) videos, trees in the wind, sea and ocean waves, etc. Researchers extensively studied 2-D textures and related problems in the fields of image processing and computer vision. On the other hand, there is very little research on dynamic texture detection in video. In this dissertation, signal and image processing methods developed for detection of a specific set of dynamic textures are presented. Signal and image processing methods are developed for the detection of flames and smoke in open and large spaces with a range of up to $30$m to the camera in visible-range (IR) video. Smoke is semi-transparent at the early stages of fire. Edges present in image frames with smoke start loosing their sharpness ...

Toreyin, Behcet Ugur — Bilkent University

Audio-visual processing and content management techniques, for the study of (human) bioacoustics phenomena

The present doctoral thesis aims towards the development of new long-term, multi-channel, audio-visual processing techniques for the analysis of bioacoustics phenomena. The effort is focused on the study of the physiology of the gastrointestinal system, aiming at the support of medical research for the discovery of gastrointestinal motility patterns and the diagnosis of functional disorders. The term "processing" in this case is quite broad, incorporating the procedures of signal processing, content description, manipulation and analysis, that are applied to all the recorded bioacoustics signals, the auxiliary audio-visual surveillance information (for the monitoring of experiments and the subjects' status), and the extracted audio-video sequences describing the abdominal sound-field alterations. The thesis outline is as follows. The main objective of the thesis, which is the technological support of medical research, is presented in the first chapter. A quick problem definition is initially ...

Dimoulas, Charalampos — Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

Error Resilient Compression of Digital Video Data

Not Available

Spaan, Frank — Delft University of Technology

Exploiting Correlation Noise Modeling in Wyner-Ziv Video Coding

Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding is a particular case of distributed video coding, a new video coding paradigm based on the Slepian-Wolf and Wyner-Ziv theorems which mainly exploit the source correlation at the decoder and not only at the encoder as in predictive video coding. Therefore, this new coding paradigm may provide a flexible allocation of complexity between the encoder and the decoder and in-built channel error robustness, interesting features for emerging applications such as low-power video surveillance and visual sensor networks among others. Although some progress has been made in the last eight years, the rate-distortion performance of WZ video coding is still far from the maximum performance attained with predictive video coding. The WZ video coding compression efficiency depends critically on the capability to model the correlation noise between the original information at the encoder and its estimation generated ...

Brites, Catarina — Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST)

An Energy Aware Framework for Mobile Computing

Since their inception, energy dissipation has been a critical issue for mobile computing systems. Although a large research investment in low-energy circuit design and hardware level energy management has led to more energy-efficient architectures, even then, there is a growing realization that the contribution to energy conservation should be more rigorously considered at higher levels of the systems, such as operating systems and applications. This dissertation puts forth the claim that energy-aware compilation to improve appli- cation quality both in terms of execution time and energy consumption is essential for a high performance mobile computing embedded system design. Our work is a design paradigm shift from the logic gate being the basic silicon computation unit, to an in- struction running on an embedded processor. Multimedia DSP processors are the most lucrative choice to a mobile computing system design for their ...

Azeemi, N. Zafar — Vienna University of Technology

Multiantenna Cellular Communications: Channel Estimation, Feedback, and Resource Allocation

The use of multiple antennas at base stations and user devices is a key component in the design of cellular communication systems that can meet the capacity demands of tomorrow. The downlink transmission from base stations to users is particularly limiting, both from a theoretical and a practical perspective, since user devices should be simple and power-efficient, and because many applications primarily create downlink traffic (e.g., video streaming). The potential gain of employing multiple antennas for downlink transmission is well recognized: the total data throughput increases linearly with the number of transmit antennas if the spatial dimension is exploited for simultaneous transmission to multiple users. In the design of practical cellular systems, the actual benefit of multiuser multiantenna transmission is limited by a variety of factors, including acquisition and accuracy of channel information, transmit power, channel conditions, cell density, user ...

Emil Bj√∂rnson — KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Multiple Objective Optimization for Video Streaming

In this thesis, we propose Multiple Objective Optimization (MOO) frameworks for efficient video streaming. Firstly, we introduce pre-roll delay-distortion optimization (DDO) for uninterrupted content-adaptive video streaming over low capacity, constant bitrate (CBR) channels using MOO. Content analysis is used to divide the input video into shots with assigned relevance levels. The video is adaptively encoded and streamed aiming minimum pre-roll delay and distortion with the optimal spatial and temporal resolutions and quantization parameters for each shot. With buffer and distortion constraints, the bitrate of unimportant shots is reduced to achieve an acceptable quality in important shots. Secondly, we introduce a cross-layer optimized video rate adaptation and scheduling scheme to achieve maximum "application layer" Quality-of-Service (QoS), maximum video throughput (video seconds per transmission slot), and QoS fairness for wireless video streaming. Using the MOO framework, these objectives are jointly optimized such ...

Ozcelebi, Tanir — Koc University

Video Quality Estimation for Mobile Video Streaming

For the provisioning of video streaming services it is essential to provide a required level of customer satisfaction, given by the perceived video stream quality. It is therefore important to choose the compression parameters as well as the network settings so that they maximize the end-user quality. Due to video compression improvements of the newest video coding standard H.264/AVC, video streaming for low bit and frame rates is possible while preserving its perceptual quality. This is especially suitable for video applications in 3G wireless networks. Mobile video streaming is characterized by low resolutions and low bitrates. The commonly used resolutions are Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF,176x144 pixels) for cell phones, Common Intermediate Format (CIF, 352x288 pixels) and Standard Interchange Format (SIF or QVGA, 320x240 pixels) for data-cards and palmtops (PDA). The mandatory codec for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) streaming ...

Ries, Michal — Vienna University of Technology

Object-based Video Segmentation with Region Labeling

Not Available

Patras, Ioannis — Delft University of Technology

Resource Allocation in Modulation and Equalization Procedures in DSL Modems

Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology is a very popular broadband access technology. It uses the existing telephone infrastructure to provide broadband access. In order to cope with the increased bandwidth demand to support broadband services, such as, Video on Demand (VoD), real time multimedia streaming, it is important to further improve the DSL. The main performance degradation of the DSL system is caused by channel impairments, such as, crosstalk and inter-symbol interference (ISI). Furthermore, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based discrete multitone (DMT) system has very poor spectral properties, which prohibit the use of tones at the band edges in order to meet the power spectral density (PSD) constraints of the system, thus reducing the achievable bit rate. In order to mitigate the channel impairments as well as to combat the poor spectral properties of the DFT based DMT, sophisticated ...

Kumar Pandey, Prabin — KU Leuven

Traditional and Scalable Coding Techniques for Video Compression

In recent years, the usage of digital video has steadily been increasing. Since the amount of data for uncompressed digital video representation is very high, lossy source coding techniques are usually employed in digital video systems to compress that information and make it more suitable for storage and transmission. The source coding algorithms for video compression can be grouped into two big classes: the traditional and the scalable techniques. The goal of the traditional video coders is to maximize the compression efficiency corresponding to a given amount of compressed data. The goal of scalable video coding is instead to give a scalable representation of the source, such that subsets of it are able to describe in an optimal way the same video source but with reduced resolution in the temporal, spatial and/or quality domain. This thesis is focused on the ...

Cappellari, Lorenzo — University of Padova

Indexation et Recherche de Video pour la Videosurveillance

The goal of this work is to propose a general approach for surveillance video indexing and retrieval. Based on the hypothesis that videos are preprocessed by an external video analysis module, this approach is composed of two phases : indexing phase and retrieval phase. In order to profit from the output of various video analysis modules, a general data model consisting of two main concepts, objects and events, is proposed. The indexing phase that aims at preparing data defined in the data model performs three tasks. Firstly, two new key blob detection methods in the object representation task choose for each detected object a set of key blobs associated with a weight. Secondly, the feature extraction task analyzes a number of visual and temporal features on detected objects. Finally, the indexing task computes attributes of the two concepts and stores ...

Thi-Lan, Le — INRIA, Sophia Antipolis

Video Object Tracking with Feedback of Performance Measures

The task of segmentation and tracking of objects in a video sequence is an important high-level video processing problem for object-based video manipulation and representation. This task involves utilization of many low-level pre-processing tasks such as image segmentation and motion estimation. It is also very important to assess the performance of the video object segmentation and tracking algorithms quantitatively and objectively. Performance evaluation measures are proposed both when the ground-truth segmentation maps are available and when they are unavailable. A semi-automatic video object tracking method is introduced that uses the proposed performance evaluation measures in a feedback loop to adjust its parameters locally on the object boundary. New low-level image segmentation and motion estimation algorithms, namely, an illumination invariant fuzzy image segmentation algorithm and a motion estimation estimation algorithm in the frequency domain using fuzzy c-planes clustering are also presented ...

Erdem, Cigdem Eroglu — Bogazici University

Nonlinear rate control techniques for constant bit rate MPEG video coders

Digital visual communication has been increasingly adopted as an efficient new medium in a variety of different fields; multi-media computers, digital televisions, telecommunications, etc. Exchange of visual information between remote sites requires that digital video is encoded by compressing the amount of data and transmitting it through specified network connections. The compression and transmission of digital video is an amalgamation of statistical data coding processes, which aims at efficient exchange of visual information without technical barriers due to different standards, services, media, etc. It is associated with a series of different disciplines of digital signal processing, each of which can be applied independently. It includes a few different technical principles; distortion, rate theory, prediction techniques and control theory. The MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video compression standard is based on this paradigm, thus, it contains a variety of different coding ...

Saw, Yoo-Sok — University Of Edinburgh

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