## Polynomial Predictive Filters: Implementation and Applications (2000)

Feedback-Channel and Adaptive MIMO Coded-Modulations

When the transmitter of a communication system disposes of some Channel State Information (CSI), it is possible to design linear precoders that optimally allocate the power inducing high gains either in terms of capacity or in terms of reliable communications. In practical scenarios, this channel knowledge is not perfect and thus the transmitted signal suffers from the mismatch between the CSI at the transmitter and the real channel. In that context, this thesis deals with two different, but related, topics: the design of a feasible transmitter channel tracker for time varying channels, and the design of optimal linear precoders robust to imperfect channel estimates. The first part of the thesis proposes the design of a channel tracker that provides an accurate CSI at the transmitter by means of a low capacity feedback link. Historically, those schemes have been criticized because ...

Rey, Francesc — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

Efficient Perceptual Audio Coding Using Cosine and Sine Modulated Lapped Transforms

The increasing number of simultaneous input and output channels utilized in immersive audio configurations primarily in broadcasting applications has renewed industrial requirements for efficient audio coding schemes with low bit-rate and complexity. This thesis presents a comprehensive review and extension of conventional approaches for perceptual coding of arbitrary multichannel audio signals. Particular emphasis is given to use cases ranging from two-channel stereophonic to six-channel 5.1-surround setups with or without the application-specific constraint of low algorithmic coding latency. Conventional perceptual audio codecs share six common algorithmic components, all of which are examined extensively in this thesis. The first is a signal-adaptive filterbank, constructed using instances of the real-valued modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT), to obtain spectral representations of successive portions of the incoming discrete time signal. Within this MDCT spectral domain, various intra- and inter-channel optimizations, most of which are of ...

Helmrich, Christian R. — Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Design of Multivariable Cautious Discrete-time Wiener Filters: A Probabilistic Approach

A new approach to robust filtering, prediction, smoothing and open-loop control of discrete-time signal vectors is presented. Linear time-invariant filters are designed to be insensitive to spectral uncertainty in signal models. The goal is to obtain a simple design method, leading to filters which are not overly conservative. Modelling errors are described by sets of time-invariant models, parameterized by random variables with known covariances. These covariances could either be estimated from data, or be used as robustness ``tuning knobs". A robust design is obtained by minimizing the H-2 norm, averaged with respect to the assumed model errors. A polynomial matrix solution, based on an averaged spectral factorization and a Diophantine equation, is derived. The robust filters are referred to as cautious filters. The filters turn out to be not more complicated to design than the ordinary filters. The main effort ...

Ohrn, Kenth — Uppsala University

Combined Word-Length Allocation and High-Level Synthesis of Digital Signal Processing Circuits

This work is focused on the synthesis of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) circuits usingc specific hardware architectures. Due to its complexity, the design process has been subdivided into separate tasks, thus hindering the global optimization of the resulting systems. The author proposes the study of the combination of two major design tasks, Word-Length Allocation (WLA) and High-Level Synthesis (HLS), aiming at the optimization of DSP implementations using modern Field Programmable Gate Array devices (FPGAs). A multiple word-length approach (MWL) is adopted since it leads to highly optimized implementations. MWL implies the customization of the word-lengths of the signals of an algorithm. This complicates the design, since the number possible assignations between algorithm operations and hardware resources becomes very high. Moreover, this work also considers the use of heterogeneous FPGAs where there are several types of resources: configurable logic-based blocks (LUT-based) ...

Caffarena, Gabriel — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid

Synchronization and Multipath Delay Estimation Algorithms for Digital Receivers

This thesis considers the development of synchronization and signal processing techniques for digital communication receivers, which is greatly influenced by the digital revolution of electronic systems. Eventhough synchronization concepts are well studied and established in the literature, there is always a need for new algorithms depending on new system requirements and new trends in receiver architecture design. The new trend of using digital receivers where the sampling of the baseband signal is performed by a free running oscillator reduces the analog components by performing most of the functions digitally, which increases the flexibility, configurability, and integrability of the receiver. Also, this new design approach contributes greatly to the software radio (SWR) concept which is the natural progression of digital radio receivers towards multimode, multistandard terminals where the radio functionalities are defined by software. The first part of this research work ...

Hamila, Ridha — Tampere University of Technology

Multiuser demodulation for DS-CDMA systems in fading channels

Multiuser demodulation algorithms for centralized receivers of asynchronous direct-sequence (DS) spread-spectrum code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems in frequency-selective fading channels are studied. Both DS-CDMA systems with short (one symbol interval) and long (several symbol intervals) spreading sequences are considered. Linear multiuser receivers process ideally the complete received data block. The approximation of ideal infinite memory-length (IIR) linear multiuser detectors by finite memory-length (FIR) detectors is studied. It is shown that the FIR detectors can be made near-far resistant under a given ratio between maximum and minimum received power of users by selecting an appropriate memory-length. Numerical examples demonstrate the fact that moderate memory-lengths of the FIR detectors are sufficient to achieve the performance of the ideal IIR detectors even under severe near-far conditions. Multiuser demodulation in relatively fast fading channels is analyzed. The optimal maximum likelihood sequence detection receiver and suboptimal ...

Juntti, Markku — University of Oulou

This work considers a Broadcast Channel (BC) system, where the transmitter is equipped with multiple antennas and each user at the receiver side could have one or more antennas. Depending on the number of antennas at the receiver side, such a system is known as Multiple-User Multiple-Input Single-Output (MU-MISO), for single antenna users, or Multiple-UserMultiple-InputMultiple-Output (MU-MIMO), for several antenna users. This model is suitable for current wireless communication systems. Regarding the direction of the data flow, we differentiate between downlink channel or BC, and uplink channel or Multiple Access Channel (MAC). In the BC the signals are sent from the Base Station (BS) to the users, whereas the information from the users is sent to the BS in the MAC. In this work we focus on the BC where the BS applies linear precoding taking advantage of multiple antennas. The ...

González-Coma, José Pablo — University of a Coruña

Transmit diversity is a powerful technique for enhancing the channel capacity and reliability of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. This thesis considers extended orthogonal space-time block coding (EO-STBC) with beamsteering angles, which have previously been shown to potentially achieve full diversity and array gain with four transmit and one receive antenna. The optimum setting of beamsteering angles applied in the transmitter, which has to be calculated based on channel state information (CSI) at the receiver side, must be quantised and feed back to the transmitter via a reverse feedback link. When operating in a fading scenario, channel coefficients vary smoothly with time. This smooth evolution of channel coefficients motivates the investigation of differential feedback, which can reduce the number of feedback bits, while potentially maintaining near optimum performance. The hypothesis that the smooth evolution of channel coefficients translates into ...

Hussin, Mohamed Nuri Ahmed — University of Strathclyde

Energy-Efficient Distributed Multicast Beamforming Using Iterative Second-Order Cone Programming

In multi-user (MU) downlink beamforming, a high spectral efficiency along with a low transmit power is achieved by separating multiple users in space rather than in time or frequency using spatially selective transmit beams. For streaming media applications, multi-group multicast (MGM) downlink beamforming is a promising approach to exploit the broadcasting property of the wireless medium to transmit the same information to a group of users. To limit inter-group interference, the individual streams intended for different multicast groups are spatially separated using MGM downlink beamforming. Spatially selective downlink beamforming requires the employment of an array of multiple antennas at the base station (BS). The hardware costs associated with the use of multiple antennas may be prohibitive in practice. A way to avoid the expensive employment of multiple antennas at the BS is to exploit user cooperation in wireless networks where ...

Bornhorst, Nils — Technische Universität Darmstadt

Contributions to Improved Hard- and Soft-Decision Decoding in Speech and Audio Codecs

Source coding is an essential part in digital communications. In error-prone transmission conditions, even with the help of channel coding, which normally introduces delay, bit errors may still occur. Single bit errors can result in significant distortions. Therefore, a robust source decoder is desired for adverse transmission conditions. Compared to the traditional hard-decision (HD) decoding and error concealment, soft-decision (SD) decoding offers a higher robustness by exploiting the source residual redundancy and utilizing the bit-wise channel reliability information. Moreover, the quantization codebook index can be either mapped to a fixed number of bits using fixed-length (FL) codes, or a variable number of bits employing variable-length (VL) codes. The codebook entry can be either fixed over time or time-variant. However, using a fixed scalar quantization codebook leads to the same performance for correlated and uncorrelated processes. This thesis aims to improve ...

Han, Sai — Technische Universität Braunschweig

Digital Pre-distortion of Microwave Power Amplifiers

With the advent of spectrally efficient wireless communication systems employing modulation schemes with varying amplitude of the communication signal, linearisation techniques for nonlinear microwave power amplifiers have gained significant interest. The availability of fast and cheap digital processing technology makes digital pre-distortion an attractive candidate as a means for power amplifier linearisation since it promises high power efficiency and fleexibility. Digital pre-distortion is further in line with the current efforts towards software defined radio systems, where a principal aim is to substitute costly and inflexible analogue circuitry with cheap and reprogrammable digital circuitry. Microwave power amplifiers are most efficient in terms of delivered microwave output power vs. supplied power if driven near the saturation point. In this operational mode, the amplifier behaves as a nonlinear device, which introduces undesired distortions in the information bear- ing microwave signal. These nonlinear distortions ...

Aschbacher, E. — Vienna University of Technology

Dynamic Scheme Selection in Image Coding

This thesis deals with the coding of images with multiple coding schemes and their dynamic selection. In our society of information highways, electronic communication is taking everyday a bigger place in our lives. The number of transmitted images is also increasing everyday. Therefore, research on image compression is still an active area. However, the current trend is to add several functionalities to the compression scheme such as progressiveness for more comfortable browsing of web-sites or databases. Classical image coding schemes have a rigid structure. They usually process an image as a whole and treat the pixels as a simple signal with no particular characteristics. Second generation schemes use the concept of objects in an image, and introduce a model of the human visual system in the design of the coding scheme. Dynamic coding schemes, as their name tells us, make ...

Fleury, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Spatio-temporal Prediction of Wind Fields

Short-term wind and wind power forecasts are required for the reliable and economic operation of power systems with significant wind power penetration. This thesis presents new statistical techniques for producing forecasts at multiple locations using spatio-temporal information. Forecast horizons of up to 6 hours are considered for which statistical methods outperform physical models in general. Several methods for producing hourly wind speed and direction forecasts from 1 to 6 hours ahead are presented in addition to a method for producing five-minute-ahead probabilistic wind power forecasts. The former have applications in areas such as energy trading and defining reserve requirements, and the latter in power system balancing and wind farm control. Spatio-temporal information is captured by vector autoregressive (VAR) models that incorporate wind direction by modelling the wind time series using complex umbers. In a further development, the VAR coefficients are ...

Dowell, Jethro — University of Strathclyde

Sparsity in Linear Predictive Coding of Speech

This thesis deals with developing improved modeling methods for speech and audio processing based on the recent developments in sparse signal representation. In particular, this work is motivated by the need to address some of the limitations of the well-known linear prediction (LP) based all-pole models currently applied in many modern speech and audio processing systems. In the first part of this thesis, we introduce \emph{Sparse Linear Prediction}, a set of speech processing tools created by introducing sparsity constraints into the LP framework. This approach defines predictors that look for a sparse residual rather than a minimum variance one, with direct applications to coding but also consistent with the speech production model of voiced speech, where the excitation of the all-pole filter is model as an impulse train. Introducing sparsity in the LP framework, will also bring to develop the ...

Giacobello, Daniele — Aalborg University

Design and Implementation of Multiuser MIMO Precoding Algorithms

The demand for high-speed communications required by cutting-edge applications has put a strain on the already saturated wireless spectrum. The incorporation of antenna arrays at both ends of the communication link has provided improved spectral efficiency and link reliability to the inherently complex wireless environment, thus allowing for the thriving of high data-rate applications without the cost of extra bandwidth consumption. As a consequence to this, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become the key technology for wideband communication standards both in single-user and multi-user setups. The main difficulty in single-user MIMO systems stems from the signal detection stage at the receiver, whereas multi-user downlink systems struggle with the challenge of enabling non-cooperative signal acquisition at the user terminals. In this respect, precoding techniques perform a pre-equalization stage at the base station so that the signal at each receiver can be ...

Barrenechea, Maitane — University of Mondragon

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