GRAPH-TIME SIGNAL PROCESSING: FILTERING AND SAMPLING STRATEGIES

The necessity to process signals living in non-Euclidean domains, such as signals de- fined on the top of a graph, has led to the extension of signal processing techniques to the graph setting. Among different approaches, graph signal processing distinguishes it- self by providing a Fourier analysis of these signals. Analogously to the Fourier transform for time and image signals, the graph Fourier transform decomposes the graph signals in terms of the harmonics provided by the underlying topology. For instance, a graph signal characterized by a slow variation between adjacent nodes has a low frequency content. Along with the graph Fourier transform, graph filters are the key tool to alter the graph frequency content of a graph signal. This thesis focuses on graph filters that are performed distributively in the node domain–that is, each node needs to exchange in- formation ...

Elvin Isufi — Delft University of Technology


Convergence Analysis of Distributed Consensus Algorithms

Inspired by new emerging technologies and networks of devices with high collective computational power, I focus my work on the problematics of distributed algorithms. While each device runs a relatively simple algorithm with low complexity, the group of interconnected units (agents) determines a behavior of high complexity. Typically, such units have their own memory and processing unit, and are interconnected and capable to exchange information with each other. More specifically, this work is focused on the distributed consensus algorithms. Such algorithms allow the agents to coordinate their behaviour and to distributively find a common agreement (consensus). To understand and analyze their behaviour, it is necessary to analyze the convergence of the consensus algorithm, i.e., under which conditions the algorithm reaches a consensus and under which it does not. Naturally, the communication channel can change and the agents may function asynchronously ...

Sluciak, Ondrej — Vienna University of Technology


A Game-Theoretic Approach for Adversarial Information Fusion in Distributed Sensor Networks

Every day we share our personal information through digital systems which are constantly exposed to threats. For this reason, security-oriented disciplines of signal processing have received increasing attention in the last decades: multimedia forensics, digital watermarking, biometrics, network monitoring, steganography and steganalysis are just a few examples. Even though each of these elds has its own peculiarities, they all have to deal with a common problem: the presence of one or more adversaries aiming at making the system fail. Adversarial Signal Processing lays the basis of a general theory that takes into account the impact that the presence of an adversary has on the design of effective signal processing tools. By focusing on the application side of Adversarial Signal Processing, namely adversarial information fusion in distributed sensor networks, and adopting a game-theoretic approach, this thesis contributes to the above mission ...

Kallas, Kassem — University of Siena


Optimization of Positioning Capabilities in Wireless Sensor Networks: from power efficiency to medium access

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the ability of sensor nodes to know its position is an enabler for a wide variety of applications for monitoring, control, and automation. Often, sensor data is meaningful only if its position can be determined. Many WSN are deployed indoors or in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal coverage is not available, and thus GNSS positioning cannot be guaranteed. In these scenarios, WSN may be relied upon to achieve a satisfactory degree of positioning accuracy. Typically, batteries power sensor nodes in WSN. These batteries are costly to replace. Therefore, power consumption is an important aspect, being performance and lifetime ofWSN strongly relying on the ability to reduce it. It is crucial to design effective strategies to maximize battery lifetime. Optimization of power consumption can be made at different layers. For example, at the ...

Moragrega, Ana — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Sensing physical fields: Inverse problems for the diffusion equation and beyond

Due to significant advances made over the last few decades in the areas of (wireless) networking, communications and microprocessor fabrication, the use of sensor networks to observe physical phenomena is rapidly becoming commonplace. Over this period, many aspects of sensor networks have been explored, yet a thorough understanding of how to analyse and process the vast amounts of sensor data collected remains an open area of research. This work, therefore, aims to provide theoretical, as well as practical, advances this area. In particular, we consider the problem of inferring certain underlying properties of the monitored phenomena, from our sensor measurements. Within mathematics, this is commonly formulated as an inverse problem; whereas in signal processing, it appears as a (multidimensional) sampling and reconstruction problem. Indeed it is well known that inverse problems are notoriously ill-posed and very demanding to solve; meanwhile ...

Murray-Bruce, John — Imperial College London


Facial Soft Biometrics: Methods, Applications and Solutions

This dissertation studies soft biometrics traits, their applicability in different security and commercial scenarios, as well as related usability aspects. We place the emphasis on human facial soft biometric traits which constitute the set of physical, adhered or behavioral human characteristics that can partially differentiate, classify and identify humans. Such traits, which include characteristics like age, gender, skin and eye color, the presence of glasses, moustache or beard, inherit several advantages such as ease of acquisition, as well as a natural compatibility with how humans perceive their surroundings. Specifically, soft biometric traits are compatible with the human process of classifying and recalling our environment, a process which involves constructions of hierarchical structures of different refined traits. This thesis explores these traits, and their application in soft biometric systems (SBSs), and specifically focuses on how such systems can achieve different goals ...

Dantcheva, Antitza — EURECOM / Telecom ParisTech


Reconstruction and clustering with graph optimization and priors on gene networks and images

The discovery of novel gene regulatory processes improves the understanding of cell phenotypic responses to external stimuli for many biological applications, such as medicine, environment or biotechnologies. To this purpose, transcriptomic data are generated and analyzed from DNA microarrays or more recently RNAseq experiments. They consist in genetic expression level sequences obtained for all genes of a studied organism placed in different living conditions. From these data, gene regulation mechanisms can be recovered by revealing topological links encoded in graphs. In regulatory graphs, nodes correspond to genes. A link between two nodes is identified if a regulation relationship exists between the two corresponding genes. Such networks are called Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs). Their construction as well as their analysis remain challenging despite the large number of available inference methods. In this thesis, we propose to address this network inference problem ...

Pirayre, Aurélie — IFP Energies nouvelles


Distributed Signal Processing Algorithms for Acoustic Sensor Networks

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of wireless devices for individual use to the point of being ubiquitous. Recent trends have been incorporating many of these devices (or nodes) together, which acquire signals and work in unison over wireless channels, in order to accomplish a predefined task. This type of cooperative sensing and communication between devices form the basis of a so-called wireless sensor network (WSN). Due to the ever increasing processing power of these nodes, WSNs are being assigned more complicated and computationally demanding tasks. Recent research has started to exploit this increased processing power in order for the WSNs to perform tasks pertaining to audio signal acquisition and processing forming so-called wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs). Audio signal processing poses new and unique problems when compared to traditional sensing applications as the signals observed often have ...

Szurley, Joseph — KU Leuven


Distributed Signal Processing Algorithms for Acoustic Sensor Networks

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of wireless devices for individual use to the point of being ubiquitous. Recent trends have been incorporating many of these devices (or nodes) together, which acquire signals and work in unison over wireless channels, in order to accomplish a predefined task. This type of cooperative sensing and communication between devices form the basis of a so-called wireless sensor network (WSN). Due to the ever increasing processing power of these nodes, WSNs are being assigned more complicated and computationally demanding tasks. Recent research has started to exploit this increased processing power in order for the WSNs to perform tasks pertaining to audio signal acquisition and processing forming so-called wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs). Audio signal processing poses new and unique problems when compared to traditional sensing applications as the signals observed often have ...

Szurley, Joseph C. — KU Leuven


Realtime and Accurate Musical Control of Expression in Voice Synthesis

In the early days of speech synthesis research, understanding voice production has attracted the attention of scientists with the goal of producing intelligible speech. Later, the need to produce more natural voices led researchers to use prerecorded voice databases, containing speech units, reassembled by a concatenation algorithm. With the outgrowth of computer capacities, the length of units increased, going from diphones to non-uniform units, in the so-called unit selection framework, using a strategy referred to as 'take the best, modify the least'. Today the new challenge in voice synthesis is the production of expressive speech or singing. The mainstream solution to this problem is based on the “there is no data like more data” paradigm: emotionspecific databases are recorded and emotion-specific units are segmented. In this thesis, we propose to restart the expressive speech synthesis problem, from its original voice ...

D' Alessandro, N. — Universite de Mons


Dynamic organization of human brain function and its relevance for psychosis vulnerability

The brain is the substrate of a complex dynamic system providing a remarkably varied range of functionalities, going from simple perception to higher-level cognition. Disturbances in its complex dynamics can cause an equally vast variety of mental disorders. One such brain disorder is schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by abnormal perception of reality that manifests in symptoms like hallucinations or delusions. Even though the brain is known to be affected in schizophrenia, the exact pathophysiology underlying its developmental course is still mostly unknown. In this thesis, we develop and apply methods to look into ongoing brain function measured through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluate the potential of these approaches for improving our understanding of psychosis vulnerability and schizophrenia. We focus on patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a genetic disorder that comes with a 30fold increased risk for ...

Zöller, Daniela — EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)


Sparse Sensing for Statistical Inference: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

In today's society, we are flooded with massive volumes of data in the order of a billion gigabytes on a daily basis from pervasive sensors. It is becoming increasingly challenging to locally store and transport the acquired data to a central location for signal/data processing (i.e., for inference). To alleviate these problems, it is evident that there is an urgent need to significantly reduce the sensing cost (i.e., the number of expensive sensors) as well as the related memory and bandwidth requirements by developing unconventional sensing mechanisms to extract as much information as possible yet collecting fewer data. The first aim of this thesis is to develop theory and algorithms for data reduction. We develop a data reduction tool called sparse sensing, which consists of a deterministic and structured sensing function (guided by a sparse vector) that is optimally designed ...

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar — Delft University of Technology


Domain-informed signal processing with application to analysis of human brain functional MRI data

Standard signal processing techniques are implicitly based on the assumption that the signal lies on a regular, homogeneous domain. In practice, however, many signals lie on an irregular or inhomogeneous domain. An application area where data are naturally defined on an irregular or inhomogeneous domain is human brain neuroimaging. The goal in neuroimaging is to map the structure and function of the brain using imaging techniques. In particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that is conventionally used in non-invasive probing of human brain function. This doctoral dissertation deals with the development of signal processing schemes that adapt to the domain of the signal. It consists of four papers that in different ways deal with exploiting knowledge of the signal domain to enhance the processing of signals. In each paper, special focus is given to the analysis of ...

Behjat, Hamid — Lund University


Information Loss in Deterministic Systems

A fundamental theorem in information theory – the data processing inequality – states that deterministic processing cannot increase the amount of information contained in a random variable or a stochastic process. The task of signal processing is to operate on the physical representation of information such that the intended user can access this information with little effort. In the light of the data processing inequality, this can be viewed as the task of removing irrelevant information, while preserving as much relevant information as possible. This thesis defines information loss for memoryless systems processing random variables or stochastic processes, both with and without a notion of relevance. These definitions are the basis of an information-theoretic systems theory, which complements the currently prevailing energy-centered approaches. The results thus developed are used to analyze various systems in the signal processor’s toolbox: polynomials, quantizers, ...

Geiger, Bernhard C. — Graz University of Technology


Advanced Algebraic Concepts for Efficient Multi-Channel Signal Processing

Modern society is undergoing a fundamental change in the way we interact with technology. More and more devices are becoming "smart" by gaining advanced computation capabilities and communication interfaces, from household appliances over transportation systems to large-scale networks like the power grid. Recording, processing, and exchanging digital information is thus becoming increasingly important. As a growing share of devices is nowadays mobile and hence battery-powered, a particular interest in efficient digital signal processing techniques emerges. This thesis contributes to this goal by demonstrating methods for finding efficient algebraic solutions to various applications of multi-channel digital signal processing. These may not always result in the best possible system performance. However, they often come close while being significantly simpler to describe and to implement. The simpler description facilitates a thorough analysis of their performance which is crucial to design robust and reliable ...

Roemer, Florian — Ilmenau University of Technology

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