Efficient Decoding Techniques for LDPC Codes

Efficient decoding techniques for LDPC codes are in demand, since these codes are included in many standards nowadays. Although the theoretical performance of LDPC codes is impressive, their practical implementation leads to problems like numerical inaccuracy, limited memory resources, etc. We investigate methods that are suited to reduce the decoding complexity while still keeping the loss in performance small. We aim to reduce the complexity using three approaches: simplification of the component decoders, restricting the message passing algorithm to binary variables and combining the LDPC decoder with other receiver tasks like demapping or multi-user detection. For the simplification of the component decoders, we analyze the min-sum algorithm and derive a theoretical framework which is used to explain previous heuristic approaches to improve the performance of this algorithm. Using this framework, we are able to modify the algorithm in order to ...

Lechner, G. — Vienna University of Technology


On the Energy Efficiency of Cooperative Wireless Networks

The aim of this dissertation is the study of cooperative communications in wireless networks. In cooperative networks, each user transmits its own data and also aids the communication of other users. User cooperation is particularly attractive for the wireless medium, where every user listens to the transmission of other users. The main benefit of user cooperation in wireless networks is, probably, its efficacy to combat the wireless channel impairments. Path loss and shadowing effects are overcome using intermediate nodes, with better channel conditions, to retransmit the received signal to the estination. Further, the channel fading effect can be also mitigated by means of cooperative spatial diversity (the information arrives at the destination through multiple independent paths). These benefits result in an increase of the users spectral efficiency and/or savings on the overall network power resource. Besides these gains, the simple ...

Gomez-Vilardebo, Jesus — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid


Physical and MAC layer techniques for next generation satellite communications

In this thesis, we consider four different scenarios of interest in modern satellite communications. For each scenario, we will propose the use of advanced solutions aimed at increasing the spectral efficiency of the communication links. First, we will investigate the optimization of the current standard for digital video broadcasting. We will increase the symbol rate of the signal and determine the optimal signal bandwidth. We will apply the time packing technique and propose a specifically design constellation. We will then compare some receiver architectures with different performance and complexity. The second scenario still addresses broadcast transmissions, but in a network composed of two satellites. We will compare three alternative transceiver strategies, namely, signals completely overlapped in frequency, frequency division multiplexing, and the Alamouti space-time block code, and, for each technique, we will derive theoretical results on the achievable rates. We ...

Ugolini, Alessandro — University of Parma


Communication Rates for Fading Channels with Imperfect Channel-State Information

An important specificity of wireless communication channels are the rapid fluctuations of propagation coefficients. This effect is called fading and is caused by the motion of obstacles, scatterers and reflectors standing along the different paths of electromagnetic wave propagation between the transmitting and the receiving terminal. These changes in the geometry of the wireless channel prompt the attenuation coefficients and the relative phase shifts between the multiple propagation paths to vary. This suggests to model the channel coefficients (the transfer matrix) as random variables. The present thesis studies information rates for reliable transmission of information over fading channels under the realistic assumption that the receiver has only imperfect knowledge of the random fading state. While the over-idealized assumption of perfect channel-state information at the receiver (CSIR) gives rise to many simple expressions and is fairly well understood, the settings with ...

Pastore, Adriano — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya


ACHIEVABLE RATES FOR GAUSSIAN CHANNELS WITH MULTIPLE RELAYS

Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channels are extensively proposed as a means to overcome the random channel impairments of wireless communications. Based upon placing multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver sides of the communication, their virtues are twofold. On the one hand, they allow the transmitter to code across antennas to overcome unknown channel fading. On the other hand, they permit the receiver to sample the signal on the space domain. This operation, followed by the coherent combination of samples, increases the signal-to-noise ratio at the input of the detector and provides large capacity, and reliability, gains. Nevertheless, equipping wireless handsets with multiple antennas is not always possible or worthwhile. Mainly, due to size and cost constraints, respectively. For these cases, the appropriate manner to exploit multi-antenna processing is by means of relaying. This consists of a set of wireless relay ...

Del Coso, Aitor — CTTC-Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya


Polarization and Index Modulations: a Theoretical and Practical Perspective

Radiocommunication systems have evolved significantly in recent years in order to meet present and future demands. Historically, time, frequency and more recently, spatial dimensions have been used to improve capacity and robustness. Paradoxically, radiocommunications that leverage the polarization dimension have not evolved at the same pace. In particular, these communications are widely used by satellites, where several streams are multiplexed in each orthogonal polarization. Current communication trends advocate for simplifying and unifying different frameworks in order to increase flexibility and address future needs. Due to this, systems that do not require channel information are progressively gaining traction, as they help to improve the overall quality of the network instead of that of specific users only. The search for new paradigms aimed at improving the quality of wireless communications is unstoppable. In order to increase the capacity of current communications systems, ...

Henarejos, Pol — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya


Iterative Joint Source-Channel Coding Techniques for Single and Multiterminal Sources in Communication Networks

In a communication system it results undoubtedly of great interest to compress the information generated by the data sources to its most elementary representation, so that the amount of power necessary for reliable communications can be reduced. It is often the case that the redundancy shown by a wide variety of information sources can be modelled by taking into account the probabilistic dependance among consecutive source symbols rather than the probabilistic distribution of a single symbol. These sources are commonly referred to as single or multiterminal sources "with memory" being the memory, in this latter case, the existing temporal correlation among the consecutive symbol vectors generated by the multiterminal source. It is well known that, when the source has memory, the average amount of information per source symbol is given by the entropy rate, which is lower than its entropy ...

Del Ser, Javier — University of Navarra (TECNUN)


Competition, Coexistence, and Confidentiality in Multiuser Multi-antenna Wireless Networks

Competition for limited bandwidth, power, and time resources is an intrinsic aspect of multi-user wireless networks. There has been a recent move towards optimizing coexistence and confidentiality at the physical layer of multi-user wireless networks, mainly by exploiting the advanced capabilities of multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO) signal processing methods. Coexistence of disparate networks is made possible via interference mitigation and suppression, and is exemplified by the current interest in cognitive radio (CR) systems. On the other hand, MIMO communications that are secure at the physical layer without depending upon network-layer encryption are achieved by redirecting jamming or multi-user interference to unauthorized receivers, while minimizing that to legitimate receivers. In all cases, the accuracy of the channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitters plays a crucial role in determining the degree of interference mitigation and confidentiality that is achieved. This dissertation ...

Mukherjee, Amitav — University of California Irvine


Impact of channel state information on the analysis and design of multiantenna communication systems

During the last decade, there has been a steady increase in the demand of high data rates that are to be supported by wireless communication applications. Among the different solutions that have been proposed by the research community to cope with this new demand, the utilization of multiple antennas arises as one of the best candidates due to the fact that it provides both an increase in reliability and also in information transmission rate. Although the use of multiple antennas at the receiver side dates back from the sixties, the full potential of multiple antennas at both communication ends has been both theoretically and practically recognized in the last few years. The design of proper multi-antenna communication systems to satisfy the high data rates demand depends not only on the chosen figure of merit or performance metric, but also on ...

Payaró Llisterri, Miquel — Centre Technologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya


Feedback-Channel and Adaptive MIMO Coded-Modulations

When the transmitter of a communication system disposes of some Channel State Information (CSI), it is possible to design linear precoders that optimally allocate the power inducing high gains either in terms of capacity or in terms of reliable communications. In practical scenarios, this channel knowledge is not perfect and thus the transmitted signal suffers from the mismatch between the CSI at the transmitter and the real channel. In that context, this thesis deals with two different, but related, topics: the design of a feasible transmitter channel tracker for time varying channels, and the design of optimal linear precoders robust to imperfect channel estimates. The first part of the thesis proposes the design of a channel tracker that provides an accurate CSI at the transmitter by means of a low capacity feedback link. Historically, those schemes have been criticized because ...

Rey, Francesc — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


OFDM Multi-User Communication Over Time-Variant Channels

Wireless broadband communications for users moving at vehicular speed is a cor- nerstone of future fourth generation (4G) mobile communication systems. We inves- tigate a multi-carrier (MC) code division multiple access (CDMA) system which is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). A spreading sequence is used in the frequency domain in order to distinguish individual users and to take advantage of the multipath diversity of the wireless channel. The transmission is block oriented. A block consists of OFDM pilot and OFDM data symbols. At pedestrian velocities the channel can be modelled as block fading. We ap- ply iterative multi-user detection and channel estimation. In iterative receivers soft symbols are derived from the output of an soft-input soft-output decoder. These soft symbols are used in order to reduce the interference from other users and to enhance the channel estimates. We ...

Zemen, T. — Vienna University of Technology


Space-Time Block Coding for Multiple Antenna Systems

The demand for mobile communication systems with high data rates has dramatically increased in recent years. New methods are necessary in order to satisfy this huge communications demand, exploiting the limited resources such as bandwidth and power as efficient as possible. MIMO systems with multiple an- tenna elements at both link ends are an efficient solution for future wireless communications systems as they provide high data rates by exploiting the spatial domain under the constraints of limited bandwidth and transmit power. Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) is a MIMO transmit strategy which exploits transmit diversity and high reliability. STBCs can be divided into two main classes, namely, Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (OSTBCs) and Non-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (NOSTBCs). The Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (QSTBCs) belong to class of NOSTBCs and have been an intensive area of research. The OSTBCs achieve full ...

Badic, B. — Vienna University of Technology


A Unified Framework for Communications through MIMO Channels

MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE-OUTPUT (MIMO) CHANNELS constitute a unified way of modeling a wide range of different physical communication channels, which can then be handled with a compact and elegant vector-matrix notation. The two paradigmatic examples are wireless multi-antenna channels and wireline Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) channels. Research in antenna arrays (also known as smart antennas) dates back to the 1960s. However, the use of multiples antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver, which can be naturally modeled as a MIMO channel, has been recently shown to offer a significant potential increase in capacity. DSL has gained popularity as a broadband access technology capable of reliably delivering high data rates over telephone subscriber lines. A DSL system can be modeled as a communication through a MIMO channel by considering all the copper twisted pairs within a binder as a whole rather ...

Palomar, Daniel Perez — Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)


Low-Complexity Iterative Detection Algorithms for Multi-Antenna Systems

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques have been widely employed by dif- ferent wireless systems with many advantages. By using multiple antennas, the system is able to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously and within the same frequency band. The methods known as spatial multiplexing (SM) and spatial diversity (SD) im- proves the high spectral efficiency and link reliability of wireless communication systems without requiring additional transmitting power. By introducing channel coding in the transmission procedure, the information redundancy is introduced to further improve the reliability of SM links and the quality of service for the next generation communication systems. However, the throughput performance of these systems is limited by interference. A number of different interference suppression techniques have been reported in the literature. Theses techniques can be generally categorised into two aspects: the preprocessing techniques at the transmitter side and ...

Peng Li — University of York


Distributed Space-Time Coding Techniques with Limited Feedback in Cooperative MIMO Networks

Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) wireless networks and distributed MIMO relaying wireless networks have attracted significant attention in current generation of wireless communication networks, and will play a key role in the next generation of wireless net- works. The improvement of network capacity, data rate and reliability can be achieved at the cost of increasing computational complexity of employing space-time coding (STC) and distributed STC (DSTC) in MIMO and distributed MIMO relaying networks, respectively. Efficient designs and algorithms to achieve high diversity and coding gains with low computational complexity in encoding and decoding of STC and DSTC schemes are essential. In this thesis, DSTC designs with high diversity and coding gains and efficient detection and code matrices optimization algorithms in cooperative MIMO networks are proposed. Firstly, adaptive power allocation (PA) algorithms with different criteria for a coop- erative MIMO network equipped with ...

Peng, Tong — University of York

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