Advanced Coding Technologies For Medical and Holographic Imaging: Algorithms, Implementations and Standardization

Medical and holographic imaging modalities produce large datasets that require efficient compression mechanisms for storage and transmission. This PhD dissertation proposes state-of-the-art technology extensions for JPEG coding standards to improve their performance in the aforementioned application domains. Modern hospitals rely heavily on volumetric images, such as produced by CT and MRI scanners. In fact, the completely digitized medical work flow, the improved imaging scanner technologies and the importance of volumetric image data sets have led to an exponentially increasing amount of data, raising the necessity for more efficient compression techniques with support for progressive quality and resolution scalability. For this type of imagery, a volumetric extension of the JPEG 2000 standard was created, called JP3D. In addition, improvements to JP3D, being alternative wavelet filters, directional wavelets and an intra-band prediction mode, were proposed and their applicability was evaluated. Holographic imaging, ...

Bruylants, Tim — Vrije Universiteit Brussel


ROBUST WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES FOR SCALABLE CODED IMAGE AND VIDEO

In scalable image/video coding, high resolution content is encoded to the highest visual quality and the bit-streams are adapted to cater various communication channels, display devices and usage requirements. These content adaptations, which include quality, resolution and frame rate scaling may also affect the content protection data, such as, watermarks and are considered as a potential watermark attack. In this thesis, research on robust watermarking techniques for scalable coded image and video, are proposed and the improvements in robustness against various content adaptation attacks, such as, JPEG 2000 for image and Motion JPEG 2000, MC-EZBC and H.264/SVC for video, are reported. The spread spectrum domain, particularly wavelet-based image watermarking schemes often provides better robustness to compression attacks due to its multi-resolution decomposition and hence chosen for this work. A comprehensive and comparative analysis of the available wavelet-based watermarking schemes,is performed ...

Bhowmik, Deepayan — University of Sheffield


Compression methods for digital holographic data

Digital holography plays a crucial role in recent three dimensional imaging as well as microscopic applications. As a result, huge amounts of storage capacity will be involved for this kind of data. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop efficient hologram compression schemes for storage and transmission purposes, which is the aim of this thesis. Particularly, the objective is the compression of digital holographic data obtained from phase-shifting interferometry. Unlike conventional approaches which encode certain representation of phase-shifting holographic data independently, the proposed work first studies the possible representations of phase-shifting holographic data and analyzes the redundancies in each representation. A new representation, referred to as shifted distance information, is selected as the compression target. Then, a vector lifting schemes based compression method is proposed to jointly encode this data. We also show the benefits that can be drawn from improving ...

Xing, Yafei — Institute Mines-Telecom, Telecom ParisTech


On-board Processing for an Infrared Observatory

During the past two decades, image compression has developed from a mostly academic Rate-Distortion (R-D) field, into a highly commercial business. Various lossless and lossy image coding techniques have been developed. This thesis represents an interdisciplinary work between the field of astronomy and digital image processing and brings new aspects into both of the fields. In fact, image compression had its beginning in an American space program for efficient data storage. The goal of this research work is to recognize and develop new methods for space observatories and software tools to incorporate compression in space astronomy standards. While the astronomers benefit from new objective processing and analysis methods and improved efficiency and quality, for technicians a new field of application and research is opened. For validation of the processing results, the case of InfraRed (IR) astronomy has been specifically analyzed. ...

Belbachir, Ahmed Nabil — Vienna University of Technology


Scalable Single and Multiple Description Scalar Quantization

Scalable representation of a source (e.g., image/video/3D mesh) enables decoding of the encoded bit-stream on a variety of end-user terminals with varying display, storage and processing capabilities. Furthermore, it allows for source communication via channels with different transmission bandwidths, as the source rate can be easily adapted to match the available channel bandwidth. From a different perspective, error-resilience against channel losses is also very important when transmitting scalable source streams over lossy transmission channels. Driven by the aforementioned requirements of scalable representation and error-resilience, this dissertation focuses on the analysis and design of scalable single and multiple description scalar quantizers. In the first part of this dissertation, we consider the design of scalable wavelet-based semi-regular 3D mesh compression systems. In this context, our design methodology thoroughly analyzes different modules of the mesh coding system in order to single-out appropriate design ...

Satti, Shahid Mahmood — Vrije Universiteit Brussel


Traditional and Scalable Coding Techniques for Video Compression

In recent years, the usage of digital video has steadily been increasing. Since the amount of data for uncompressed digital video representation is very high, lossy source coding techniques are usually employed in digital video systems to compress that information and make it more suitable for storage and transmission. The source coding algorithms for video compression can be grouped into two big classes: the traditional and the scalable techniques. The goal of the traditional video coders is to maximize the compression efficiency corresponding to a given amount of compressed data. The goal of scalable video coding is instead to give a scalable representation of the source, such that subsets of it are able to describe in an optimal way the same video source but with reduced resolution in the temporal, spatial and/or quality domain. This thesis is focused on the ...

Cappellari, Lorenzo — University of Padova


Robust and multiresolution video delivery : From H.26x to Matching pursuit based technologies

With the joint development of networking and digital coding technologies multimedia and more particularly video services are clearly becoming one of the major consumers of the new information networks. The rapid growth of the Internet and computer industry however results in a very heterogeneous infrastructure commonly overloaded. Video service providers have nevertheless to oer to their clients the best possible quality according to their respective capabilities and communication channel status. The Quality of Service is not only inuenced by the compression artifacts, but also by unavoidable packet losses. Hence, the packet video stream has clearly to fulll possibly contradictory requirements, that are coding eciency and robustness to data loss. The rst contribution of this thesis is the complete modeling of the video Quality of Service (QoS) in standard and more particularly MPEG-2 applications. The performance of Forward Error Control (FEC) ...

Frossard, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Active and Passive Approaches for Image Authentication

The generation and manipulation of digital images is made simple by widely available digital cameras and image processing software. As a consequence, we can no longer take the authenticity of a digital image for granted. This thesis investigates the problem of protecting the trustworthiness of digital images. Image authentication aims to verify the authenticity of a digital image. General solution of image authentication is based on digital signature or watermarking. A lot of studies have been conducted for image authentication, but thus far there has been no solution that could be robust enough to transmission errors during images transmission over lossy channels. On the other hand, digital image forensics is an emerging topic for passively assessing image authenticity, which works in the absence of any digital watermark or signature. This thesis focuses on how to assess the authenticity images when ...

Ye, Shuiming — National University of Singapore


Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova


Planar 3D Scene Representations for Depth Compression

The recent invasion of stereoscopic 3D television technologies is expected to be followed by autostereoscopic and holographic technologies. Glasses-free multiple stereoscopic pair displaying capabilities of these technologies will advance the 3D experience. The prospective 3D format to create the multiple views for such displays is Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD) format based on the Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) techniques. The depth modality of the MVD format is an active research area whose main objective is to develop DIBR friendly efficient compression methods. As a part this research, the thesis proposes novel 3D planar-based depth representations. The planar approximation of the stereo depth images is formulated as an energy-based co-segmentation problem by a Markov Random Field model. The energy terms of this problem are designed to mimic the rate-distortion tradeoff for a depth compression application. A heuristic algorithm is developed ...

Özkalaycı, Burak Oğuz — Middle East Technical University


Transformation methods in signal processing

This dissertation is concerned with the application of the theory of rational functions in signal processing. The PhD thesis summarizes the corresponding results of the author’s research. Since the systems of rational functions are defined by the collection of inverse poles with multiplicities, the following parameters should be determined: the number, the positions and the multiplicities of the inverse poles. Therefore, we develop the hyperbolic variant of the so-called Nelder–Mead and the particle swarm optimization algorithm. In addition, the latter one is integrated into a more general multi-dimensional framework. Furthermore, we perform a detailed stability and error analysis of these methods. We propose an electrocardiogram signal generator based on spline interpolation. It turns to be an efficient tool for testing and evaluating signal models, filtering techniques, etc. In this thesis, the synthesized heartbeats are used to test the diagnostic distortion ...

Kovács, Péter — Eötvös L. University, Budapest, Hungary


A flexible scalable video coding framework with adaptive spatio-temporal decompositions

The work presented in this thesis covers topics that extend the scalability functionalities in video coding and improve the compression performance. Two main novel approaches are presented, each targeting a different part of the scalable video coding (SVC) architecture: motion adaptive wavelet transform based on the wavelet transform in lifting implementation, and a design of a flexible framework for generalised spatio-temporal decomposition. Motion adaptive wavelet transform is based on the newly introduced concept of connectivity-map. The connectivity-map describes the underlying irregular structure of regularly sampled data. To enable a scalable representation of the connectivity-map, the corresponding analysis and synthesis operations have been derived. These are then employed to define a joint wavelet connectivity-map decomposition that serves as an adaptive alternative to the conventional wavelet decomposition. To demonstrate its applicability, the presented decomposition scheme is used in the proposed SVC framework, ...

Sprljan, Nikola — Queen Mary University of London


Density-based shape descriptors and similarity learning for 3D object retrieval

Next generation search engines will enable query formulations, other than text, relying on visual information encoded in terms of images and shapes. The 3D search technology, in particular, targets specialized application domains ranging from computer aided-design and manufacturing to cultural heritage archival and presentation. Content-based retrieval research aims at developing search engines that would allow users to perform a query by similarity of content. This thesis deals with two fundamentals problems in content-based 3D object retrieval: (1) How to describe a 3D shape to obtain a reliable representative for the subsequent task of similarity search? (2) How to supervise the search process to learn inter-shape similarities for more effective and semantic retrieval? Concerning the first problem, we develop a novel 3D shape description scheme based on probability density of multivariate local surface features. We constructively obtain local characterizations of 3D ...

Akgul, Ceyhun Burak — Bogazici University and Telecom ParisTech


Stereoscopic depth map estimation and coding techniques for multiview video systems

The dissertation deals with the problems of stereoscopic depth estimation and coding in multiview video systems, which are vital for development of the next generation three-dimensional television. The depth estimation algorithms known from literature, along with theoretical foundations are discussed. The problem of estimation of depth maps with high quality, expressed by means of accuracy, precision and temporal consistency, has been stated. Next, original solutions have been proposed. Author has proposed a novel, theoretically founded approach to depth estimation which employs Maximum A posteriori Probability (MAP) rule for modeling of the cost function used in optimization algorithms. The proposal has been presented along with a method for estimation of parameters of such model. In order to attain that, an analysis of the noise existing in multiview video and a study of inter-view correlation of corresponding samples of pictures have been ...

Stankiewicz, Olgierd — Poznan University of Technology


Ultra low-power biomedical signal processing: an analog wavelet filter approach for pacemakers

The purpose of this thesis is to describe novel signal processing methodologies and analog integrated circuit techniques for low-power biomedical systems. Physiological signals, such as the electrocardiogram (ECG), the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the electromyogram (EMG) are mostly non-stationary. The main difficulty in dealing with biomedical signal processing is that the information of interest is often a combination of features that are well localized temporally (e.g., spikes) and others that are more diffuse (e.g., small oscillations). This requires the use of analysis methods sufficiently versatile to handle events that can be at opposite extremes in terms of their time-frequency localization. Wavelet Transform (WT) has been extensively used in biomedical signal processing, mainly due to the versatility of the wavelet tools. The WT has been shown to be a very efficient tool for local analysis of nonstationary and fast transient signals due ...

Haddad, Sandro Augusto Pavlík — Delft University of Technology

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