Three dimensional shape modeling: segmentation, reconstruction and registration

Accounting for uncertainty in three-dimensional (3D) shapes is important in a large number of scientific and engineering areas, such as biometrics, biomedical imaging, and data mining. It is well known that 3D polar shaped objects can be represented by Fourier descriptors such as spherical harmonics and double Fourier series. However, the statistics of these spectral shape models have not been widely explored. This thesis studies several areas involved in 3D shape modeling, including random field models for statistical shape modeling, optimal shape filtering, parametric active contours for object segmentation and surface reconstruction. It also investigates multi-modal image registration with respect to tumor activity quantification. Spherical harmonic expansions over the unit sphere not only provide a low dimensional polarimetric parameterization of stochastic shape, but also correspond to the Karhunen-Lo´eve (K-L) expansion of any isotropic random field on the unit sphere. Spherical ...

Li, Jia — University of Michigan


Domain-informed signal processing with application to analysis of human brain functional MRI data

Standard signal processing techniques are implicitly based on the assumption that the signal lies on a regular, homogeneous domain. In practice, however, many signals lie on an irregular or inhomogeneous domain. An application area where data are naturally defined on an irregular or inhomogeneous domain is human brain neuroimaging. The goal in neuroimaging is to map the structure and function of the brain using imaging techniques. In particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that is conventionally used in non-invasive probing of human brain function. This doctoral dissertation deals with the development of signal processing schemes that adapt to the domain of the signal. It consists of four papers that in different ways deal with exploiting knowledge of the signal domain to enhance the processing of signals. In each paper, special focus is given to the analysis of ...

Behjat, Hamid — Lund University


Group-Sparse Regression - With Applications in Spectral Analysis and Audio Signal Processing

This doctorate thesis focuses on sparse regression, a statistical modeling tool for selecting valuable predictors in underdetermined linear models. By imposing different constraints on the structure of the variable vector in the regression problem, one obtains estimates which have sparse supports, i.e., where only a few of the elements in the response variable have non-zero values. The thesis collects six papers which, to a varying extent, deals with the applications, implementations, modifications, translations, and other analysis of such problems. Sparse regression is often used to approximate additive models with intricate, non-linear, non-smooth or otherwise problematic functions, by creating an underdetermined model consisting of candidate values for these functions, and linear response variables which selects among the candidates. Sparse regression is therefore a widely used tool in applications such as, e.g., image processing, audio processing, seismological and biomedical modeling, but is ...

Kronvall, Ted — Lund University


Facial features segmentation, analysis and recognition of facial expressions by the Transferable Belief Model

Facial features segmentation, analysis and recognition of facial expressions by the Transferable Belief Model The aim of this work is the analysis and the classification of facial expressions. Experiments in psychology show that human is able to recognize the emotions based on the visualization of the temporal evolution of some characteristic fiducial points. Thus we firstly propose an automatic system for the extraction of the permanent facial features (eyes, eyebrows and lips). In this work we are interested in the problem of the segmentation of the eyes and the eyebrows. The segmentation of lips contours is based on a previous work developed in the laboratory. The proposed algorithm for eyes and eyebrows contours segmentation consists of three steps: firstly, the definition of parametric models to fit as accurate as possible the contour of each feature; then, a whole set of ...

Hammal, Zakia — GIPSA-lab/DIS


Toward sparse and geometry adapted video approximations

Video signals are sequences of natural images, where images are often modeled as piecewise-smooth signals. Hence, video can be seen as a 3D piecewise-smooth signal made of piecewise-smooth regions that move through time. Based on the piecewise-smooth model and on related theoretical work on rate-distortion performance of wavelet and oracle based coding schemes, one can better analyze the appropriate coding strategies that adaptive video codecs need to implement in order to be efficient. Efficient video representations for coding purposes require the use of adaptive signal decompositions able to capture appropriately the structure and redundancy appearing in video signals. Adaptivity needs to be such that it allows for proper modeling of signals in order to represent these with the lowest possible coding cost. Video is a very structured signal with high geometric content. This includes temporal geometry (normally represented by motion ...

Divorra Escoda, Oscar — EPFL / Signal Processing Institute


Parameter Estimation and Filtering Using Sparse Modeling

Sparsity-based estimation techniques deal with the problem of retrieving a data vector from an undercomplete set of linear observations, when the data vector is known to have few nonzero elements with unknown positions. It is also known as the atomic decomposition problem, and has been carefully studied in the field of compressed sensing. Recent findings have led to a method called basis pursuit, also known as Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), as a numerically reliable sparsity-based approach. Although the atomic decomposition problem is generally NP-hard, it has been shown that basis pursuit may provide exact solutions under certain assumptions. This has led to an extensive study of signals with sparse representation in different domains, providing a new general insight into signal processing. This thesis further investigates the role of sparsity-based techniques, especially basis pursuit, for solving parameter estimation ...

Panahi, Ashkan — Chalmers University of Technology


Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova


Contributions to the analysis of vibrations and acoustic emissions for the condition monitoring of epicyclic gearboxes

Condition monitoring of machines through vibration analysis has been successfully applied on different types of machines for several decades. However, there are still some mechanical systems where its use has not given the same good results. Epicyclic gearboxes (EG) belong to this group of systems. Due to its special characteristics, EG are used in a wide range of applications within the drive technology, mostly when high power transmission is required. Machines dealing with high power transmission are typically critical, which means that a large part of the process in which they are involved depends on their appropriate operation. Hence, there is a high interest on a solution that can effectively detect failures in EG at an early stage, before they evolve and produce major breakdowns. Probably the most important reason for the deficient results of failure detection on EG through ...

Molina Vicuna, Cristian — RWTH Aachen University


Design and evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms for acoustic feedback and echo cancellation

This thesis deals with several open problems in acoustic echo cancellation and acoustic feedback control. Our main goal has been to develop solutions that provide a high performance and sound quality, and behave in a robust way in realistic conditions. This can be achieved by departing from the traditional ad-hoc methods, and instead deriving theoretically well-founded solutions, based on results from parameter estimation and system identification. In the development of these solutions, the computational efficiency has permanently been taken into account as a design constraint, in that the complexity increase compared to the state-of-the-art solutions should not exceed 50 % of the original complexity. In the context of acoustic echo cancellation, we have investigated the problems of double-talk robustness, acoustic echo path undermodeling, and poor excitation. The two former problems have been tackled by including adaptive decorrelation filters in the ...

van Waterschoot, Toon — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Adaptive filtering algorithms for acoustic echo cancellation and acoustic feedback control in speech communication applications

Multimedia consumer electronics are nowadays everywhere from teleconferencing, hands-free communications, in-car communications to smart TV applications and more. We are living in a world of telecommunication where ideal scenarios for implementing these applications are hard to find. Instead, practical implementations typically bring many problems associated to each real-life scenario. This thesis mainly focuses on two of these problems, namely, acoustic echo and acoustic feedback. On the one hand, acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) is widely used in mobile and hands-free telephony where the existence of echoes degrades the intelligibility and listening comfort. On the other hand, acoustic feedback limits the maximum amplification that can be applied in, e.g., in-car communications or in conferencing systems, before howling due to instability, appears. Even though AEC and acoustic feedback cancellation (AFC) are functional in many applications, there are still open issues. This means that ...

Gil-Cacho, Jose Manuel — KU Leuven


Parameter Estimation -in sparsity we trust

This thesis is based on nine papers, all concerned with parameter estimation. The thesis aims at solving problems related to real-world applications such as spectroscopy, DNA sequencing, and audio processing, using sparse modeling heuristics. For the problems considered in this thesis, one is not only concerned with finding the parameters in the signal model, but also to determine the number of signal components present in the measurements. In recent years, developments in sparse modeling have allowed for methods that jointly estimate the parameters in the model and the model order. Based on these achievements, the approach often taken in this thesis is as follows. First, a parametric model of the considered signal is derived, containing different parameters that capture the important characteristics of the signal. When the signal model has been determined, an optimization problem is formed aimed at finding ...

Swärd, Johan — Lund University


Biologically Inspired 3D Face Recognition

Face recognition has been an active area of study for both computer vision and image processing communities, not only for biometrics but also for human-computer interaction applications. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the existing 3D face recognition techniques and seek biologically motivated methods to improve them. We especially look at findings in psychophysics and cognitive science for insights. We propose a biologically motivated computational model, and focus on the earlier stages of the model, whose performance is critical for the later stages. Our emphasis is on automatic localization of facial features. We first propose a strong unsupervised learning algorithm for flexible and automatic training of Gaussian mixture models and use it in a novel feature-based algorithm for facial fiducial point localization. We also propose a novel structural correction algorithm to evaluate the quality of landmarking and ...

Salah, Albert Ali — Bogazici University


Bayesian resolution of the non linear inverse problem of Electrical Impedance Tomography with Finite Element modeling

Resistivity distribution estimation, widely known as Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), is a non linear ill-posed inverse problem. However, the partial derivative equation ruling this experiment yields no analytical solution for arbitrary conductivity distribution. Thus, solving the forward problem requires an approximation. The Finite Element Method (FEM) provides us with a computationally cheap forward model which preserves the non linear image-data relation and also reveals sufficiently accurate for the inversion. Within the Bayesian approach, Markovian priors on the log-conductivity distribution are introduced for regularization. The neighborhood system is directly derived from the FEM triangular mesh structure. We first propose a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation with a Huber-Markov prior which favours smooth distributions while preserving locally discontinuous features. The resulting criterion is minimized with the pseudo-conjugate gradient method. Simulation results reveal significant improvements in terms of robustness to noise, computation rapidity ...

Martin, Thierry — Laboratoire des signaux et systèmes


Biological Image Analysis

In biological research images are extensively used to monitor growth, dynamics and changes in biological specimen, such as cells or plants. Many of these images are used solely for observation or are manually annotated by an expert. In this dissertation we discuss several methods to automate the annotating and analysis of bio-images. Two large clusters of methods have been investigated and developed. A first set of methods focuses on the automatic delineation of relevant objects in bio-images, such as individual cells in microscopic images. Since these methods should be useful for many different applications, e.g. to detect and delineate different objects (cells, plants, leafs, ...) in different types of images (different types of microscopes, regular colour photographs, ...), the methods should be easy to adjust. Therefore we developed a methodology relying on probability theory, where all required parameters can easily ...

De Vylder, Jonas — Ghent University


Video Object Tracking with Feedback of Performance Measures

The task of segmentation and tracking of objects in a video sequence is an important high-level video processing problem for object-based video manipulation and representation. This task involves utilization of many low-level pre-processing tasks such as image segmentation and motion estimation. It is also very important to assess the performance of the video object segmentation and tracking algorithms quantitatively and objectively. Performance evaluation measures are proposed both when the ground-truth segmentation maps are available and when they are unavailable. A semi-automatic video object tracking method is introduced that uses the proposed performance evaluation measures in a feedback loop to adjust its parameters locally on the object boundary. New low-level image segmentation and motion estimation algorithms, namely, an illumination invariant fuzzy image segmentation algorithm and a motion estimation estimation algorithm in the frequency domain using fuzzy c-planes clustering are also presented ...

Erdem, Cigdem Eroglu — Bogazici University

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