Automatic recognition of French Cued Speech gestures

Cued Speech facilitates hearing-impaired people communication by completing lipreading. Basically, its purpose is to add manual gestures nearby the face in order to disambiguate the lip motion which is not self-sufficient for a complete understanding of the message. The goal of Telephony for Hearing IMpaired Project is to elaborate a terminal which allows communication based on French Cued Speech. Amongst the manifoldness of functionalities it requires, it is mandatory to automatically recognize French Cued Speech manual gestures. The subject of this work is the segmentation, the analysis and the recognition of Cued Speech gestures. It requires image and video processing techniques as well as data fusion, classification and gesture recognition techniques. In order to achieve this goal, we have developed several original algorithms, such as (1) a bio-inspired filter which quantifies the amount of motion in a video by integrating ...

Burger, Thomas — GIPSA-lab/DIS


Multi-channel EMG pattern classification based on deep learning

In recent years, a huge body of data generated by various applications in domains like social networks and healthcare have paved the way for the development of high performance models. Deep learning has transformed the field of data analysis by dramatically improving the state of the art in various classification and prediction tasks. Combined with advancements in electromyography it has given rise to new hand gesture recognition applications, such as human computer interfaces, sign language recognition, robotics control and rehabilitation games. The purpose of this thesis is to develop novel methods for electromyography signal analysis based on deep learning for the problem of hand gesture recognition. Specifically, we focus on methods for data preparation and developing accurate models even when few data are available. Electromyography signals are in general one-dimensional time-series with a rich frequency content. Various feature sets have ...

Tsinganos, Panagiotis — University of Patras, Greece - Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium


Contributions to the Information Fusion : application to Obstacle Recognition in Visible and Infrared Images

The interest for the intelligent vehicle field has been increased during the last years, must probably due to an important number of road accidents. Many accidents could be avoided if a device attached to the vehicle would assist the driver with some warnings when dangerous situations are about to appear. In recent years, leading car developers have recorded significant efforts and support research works regarding the intelligent vehicle field where they propose solutions for the existing problems, especially in the vision domain. Road detection and following, pedestrian or vehicle detection, recognition and tracking, night vision, among others are examples of applications which have been developed and improved recently. Still, a lot of challenges and unsolved problems remain in the intelligent vehicle domain. Our purpose in this thesis is to design an Obstacle Recognition system for improving the road security by ...

Apatean, Anca Ioana — Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen


Privacy Protecting Biometric Authentication Systems

As biometrics gains popularity and proliferates into the daily life, there is an increased concern over the loss of privacy and potential misuse of biometric data held in central repositories. The major concerns are about i) the use of biometrics to track people, ii) non-revocability of biometrics (eg. if a fingerprint is compromised it can not be canceled or reissued), and iii) disclosure of sensitive information such as race, gender and health problems which may be revealed by biometric traits. The straightforward suggestion of keeping the biometric data in a user owned token (eg. smart cards) does not completely solve the problem, since malicious users can claim that their token is broken to avoid biometric verification altogether. Put together, these concerns brought the need for privacy preserving biometric authentication methods in the recent years. In this dissertation, we survey existing ...

Kholmatov, Alisher — Sabanci University


Statistical and Discriminative Language Modeling for Turkish Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition

Turkish, being an agglutinative language with rich morphology, presents challenges for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition (LVCSR) systems. First, the agglutinative nature of Turkish leads to a high number of Out-of Vocabulary (OOV) words which in turn lower Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) accuracy. Second, Turkish has a relatively free word order that leads to non-robust language model estimates. These challenges have been mostly handled by using meaningful segmentations of words, called sub-lexical units, in language modeling. However, a shortcoming of sub-lexical units is over-generation which needs to be dealt with for higher accuracies. This dissertation aims to address the challenges of Turkish in LVCSR. Grammatical and statistical sub-lexical units for language modeling are investigated and they yield substantial improvements over the word language models. Our novel approach inspired by dynamic vocabulary adaptation mostly recovers the errors caused by over-generation and ...

Arisoy, Ebru — Bogazici University


Automatic Analysis of Head and Facial Gestures in Video Streams

Automatic analysis of head gestures and facial expressions is a challenging research area and it has significant applications for intelligent human-computer interfaces. An important task is the automatic classification of non-verbal messages composed of facial signals where both facial expressions and head rotations are observed. This is a challenging task, because there is no definite grammar or code-book for mapping the non-verbal facial signals into a corresponding mental state. Furthermore, non-verbal facial signals and the observed emotions have dependency on personality, society, state of the mood and also the context in which they are displayed or observed. This thesis mainly addresses the three desired tasks for an effective visual information based automatic face and head gesture (FHG) analyzer. First we develop a fully automatic, robust and accurate 17-point facial landmark localizer based on local appearance information and structural information of ...

Cinar Akakin, Hatice — Bogazici University


Three-Dimensional Face Recognition

In this thesis, we attack the problem of identifying humans from their three dimensional facial characteristics. For this purpose, a complete 3D face recognition system is developed. We divide the whole system into sub-processes. These sub-processes can be categorized as follows: 1) registration, 2) representation of faces, 3) extraction of discriminative features, and 4) fusion of matchers. For each module, we evaluate the state-of-the art methods, and also propose novel ones. For the registration task, we propose to use a generic face model which speeds up the correspondence establishment process. We compare the benefits of rigid and non-rigid registration schemes using a generic face model. In terms of face representation schemes, we implement a diverse range of approaches such as point clouds, curvature-based descriptors, and range images. In relation to these, various feature extraction methods are used to determine the ...

Gokberk, Berk — Bogazici University


Video person recognition strategies using head motion and facial appearance

In this doctoral dissertation, we principally explore the use of the temporal information available in video sequences for person and gender recognition; in particular, we focus on the analysis of head and facial motion, and their potential application as biometric identifiers. We also investigate how to exploit as much video information as possible for the automatic recognition; more precisely, we examine the possibility of integrating the head and mouth motion information with facial appearance into a multimodal biometric system, and we study the extraction of novel spatio-temporal facial features for recognition. We initially present a person recognition system that exploits the unconstrained head motion information, extracted by tracking a few facial landmarks in the image plane. In particular, we detail how each video sequence is firstly pre-processed by semiautomatically detecting the face, and then automatically tracking the facial landmarks over ...

Matta, Federico — Eurécom / Multimedia communications


Camera based motion estimation and recognition for human-computer interaction

Communicating with mobile devices has become an unavoidable part of our daily life. Unfortunately, the current user interface designs are mostly taken directly from desktop computers. This has resulted in devices that are sometimes hard to use. Since more processing power and new sensing technologies are already available, there is a possibility to develop systems to communicate through different modalities. This thesis proposes some novel computer vision approaches, including head tracking, object motion analysis and device ego-motion estimation, to allow efficient interaction with mobile devices. For head tracking, two new methods have been developed. The first method detects a face region and facial features by employing skin detection, morphology, and a geometrical face model. The second method, designed especially for mobile use, detects the face and eyes using local texture features. In both cases, Kalman filtering is applied to estimate ...

Hannuksela, Jari — University of Oulou


Automatic Handwritten Signature Verification - Which features should be looked at?

The increasing need for personal authentication in many daily applications has made biometrics a fundamental research area. In particular, handwritten signatures have long been considered one of the most valuable biometric traits. Signatures are the most popular method for identity verification all over the world, and people are familiar with the use of signatures for identity verification purposes in their everyday life. In fact, signatures are widely used in several daily transactions, being recognized as a legal means of verifying an individual’s identity by financial and administrative institutions. In addition, signature verification has the advantage of being a non-invasive biometric technique. Two categories of signature verification systems can be distinguished taking into account the acquisition device, namely, offline systems, where only the static image of the signature is available, and online systems, where dynamic information acquired during the signing process, ...

Marianela Parodi — Universidad Nacional de Rosario


Spoofing and Disguise Variations in Face Recognition

Human recognition has become an important topic as the need and investments for security applications grow continuously. Biometrics enable reliable and efficient identity management systems by using physical and behavioral characteristics of the subjects that are permanent, universal and easy to access. This is why, the topic of biometrics attracts higher attention today. Numerous biometric systems exist which utilize various human characteristics. Among all biometrics traits, face recognition is advantageous in terms of accessibility and reliability. It allows identification at relatively high distances for unaware subjects that do not have to cooperate. In this dissertation, two challenges in face recognition are analyzed. The first one is face spoofing. Initially, spoofing in face recognition is explained together with the countermeasure techniques that are proposed for the protection of face recognition systems against spoofing attacks. The second challenge explored in this thesis ...

Kose, Neslihan — EURECOM


Improvements in Pose Invariance and Local Description for Gabor-based 2D Face Recognition

Automatic face recognition has attracted a lot of attention not only because of the large number of practical applications where human identification is needed but also due to the technical challenges involved in this problem: large variability in facial appearance, non-linearity of face manifolds and high dimensionality are some the most critical handicaps. In order to deal with the above mentioned challenges, there are two possible strategies: the first is to construct a “good” feature space in which the manifolds become simpler (more linear and more convex). This scheme usually comprises two levels of processing: (1) normalize images geometrically and photometrically and (2) extract features that are stable with respect to these variations (such as those based on Gabor filters). The second strategy is to use classification structures that are able to deal with non-linearities and to generalize properly. To ...

Gonzalez-Jimenez, Daniel — University of Vigo


Adapted Fusion Schemes for Multimodal Biometric Authentication

This Thesis is focused on the combination of multiple biometric traits for automatic person authentication, in what is called a multimodal biometric system. More generally, any type of biometric information can be combined in what is called a multibiometric system. The information sources in multibiometrics include not only multiple biometric traits but also multiple sensors, multiple biometric instances (e.g., different fingers in fingerprint verification), repeated instances, and multiple algorithms. Most of the approaches found in the literature for combining these various information sources are based on the combination of the matching scores provided by individual systems built on the different biometric evidences. The combination schemes following this architecture are typically based on combination rules or trained pattern classifiers, and most of them assume that the score level fusion function is fixed at verification time. This Thesis considers the problem of ...

Fierrez, Julian — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid


Functional Neuroimaging Data Characterisation Via Tensor Representations

The growing interest in neuroimaging technologies generates a massive amount of biomedical data that exhibit high dimensionality. Tensor-based analysis of brain imaging data has by now been recognized as an effective approach exploiting its inherent multi-way nature. In particular, the advantages of tensorial over matrix-based methods have previously been demonstrated in the context of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) source localization; the identification of the regions of the brain which are activated at specific time instances. However, such methods can also become ineffective in realistic challenging scenarios, involving, e.g., strong noise and/or significant overlap among the activated regions. Moreover, they commonly rely on the assumption of an underlying multilinear model generating the data. In the first part of this thesis, we aimed at investigating the possible gains from exploiting the 3-dimensional nature of the brain images, through a higher-order tensorization ...

Christos Chatzichristos — National and Kapodistrian University of Athens


Statistical Signal Processing for Data Fusion

In this dissertation we focus on statistical signal processing for Data Fusion, with a particular focus on wireless sensor networks. Six topics are studied: (i) Data Fusion for classification under model uncertainty; (ii) Decision Fusion over coherent MIMO channels; (iii) Performance analysis of Maximum Ratio Combining in MIMO decision fusion; (iv) Decision Fusion over non-coherent MIMO channels; (v) Decision Fusion for distributed classification of multiple targets; (vi) Data Fusion for inverse localization problems, with application to wideband passive sonar platform estimation. The first topic of this thesis addresses the problem of lack of knowledge of the prior distribution in classification problems that operate on small data sets that may make the application of Bayes' rule questionable. Uniform or arbitrary priors may provide classification answers that, even in simple examples, may end up contradicting our common sense about the problem. Entropic ...

Ciuonzo, Domenico — Second University of Naples

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