Privacy Protecting Biometric Authentication Systems

As biometrics gains popularity and proliferates into the daily life, there is an increased concern over the loss of privacy and potential misuse of biometric data held in central repositories. The major concerns are about i) the use of biometrics to track people, ii) non-revocability of biometrics (eg. if a fingerprint is compromised it can not be canceled or reissued), and iii) disclosure of sensitive information such as race, gender and health problems which may be revealed by biometric traits. The straightforward suggestion of keeping the biometric data in a user owned token (eg. smart cards) does not completely solve the problem, since malicious users can claim that their token is broken to avoid biometric verification altogether. Put together, these concerns brought the need for privacy preserving biometric authentication methods in the recent years. In this dissertation, we survey existing ...

Kholmatov, Alisher — Sabanci University


Face Recognition's Grand Challenge: uncontrolled conditions under control

The number of cameras increases rapidly in squares, shopping centers, railway stations and airport halls. There are hundreds of cameras in the city center of Amsterdam. This is still modest compared to the tens of thousands of cameras in London, where citizens are expected to be filmed by more than three hundred cameras of over thirty separate Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in a single day [84]. These CCTV systems include both publicly owned systems (railway stations, squares, airports) and privately owned systems (shops, banks, hotels). The main purpose of all these cameras is to detect, prevent and monitor crime and anti-social behaviour. Other goals of camera surveillance can be detection of unauthorized access, improvement of service, fire safety, etc. Since the terrorist attack on 9/11, detection and prevention of terrorist activities especially at high profiled locations such as airports, ...

Boom, Bas — University of Twente


Improving Security and Privacy in Biometric Systems

The achievement of perfect security is out of the question. Even if we are not yet aware of them, every security aimed technology has weaknesses which attackers can exploit in order to circumvent the system. We should hence direct our efforts to the development of applications whose security level make it infeasible for computationally bound attackers to break the systems. This Thesis is focused on improving the security and privacy provided by biometric systems. With the increased need for reliable and automatic identity verification, biometrics have emerged in the last decades as a pushing alternative to traditional authentication methods. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for the general public: forget about PINs and passwords, you are your own key. However, the wide deployment of biometric recognition systems at both large-scale applications (e.g., border management at European level or national ...

Gomez-Barrero, Marta — Universidad Autonoma de Madrid


Privacy Preserving Processing of Biomedical Signals with Application to Remote Healthcare Systems

To preserve the privacy of patients and service providers in biomedical signal processing applications, particular attention has been given to the use of secure multiparty computation techniques. This thesis focuses on the development of a privacy preserving automatic diagnosis system whereby a remote server classifies a biomedical signal provided by the patient without getting any information about the signal itself and the final result of the classification. Specifically, we present and compare two methods for the secure classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals: the former based on linear branching programs and the latter relying on neural networks. Moreover a protocol that performs a preliminary evaluation of the signal quality is proposed. The thesis deals with all the requirements and difficulties related to working with data that must stay encrypted during all the computation steps. The proposed systems prove that carrying out ...

Lazzeretti, Riccardo — University of Siena


New insights into Crowd Density Analysis in Video Surveillance Systems

Crowd analysis has recently emerged as an increasingly important problem for crowd monitoring and management in the visual surveillance community. In this thesis, our objectives are to address the problems of crowd density estimation and to investigate the usefulness of such estimation as additional information to other applications. Towards the first goal, we focus on the problems related to the estimation of the crowd density using low level features in order to avert typical problems in detection of high density crowd. We demonstrate in this dissertation, that the proposed approaches perform better than the baseline methods, either for counting people, or alternatively for estimating the crowd level. Afterwards, we propose a novel approach, in which local information at the pixel level substitutes the overall crowd level or person count. It is based on modeling time-varying dynamics of the crowd density ...

Hajer, Fradi — TELECOM ParisTech


Face Recognition Robust to Occlusions

Face recognition is an important technology in computer vision, which often acts as an essential component in biometrics systems, HCI systems, access control systems, multimedia indexing applications, etc. In recent years, identification of subjects in non-controlled scenarios has received large amount of attentions from the biometrics research community. The deployment of real-time and robust face recognition systems can significantly reinforce the safety and security in public places or/and private residences. However, variations due to expressions/illuminations/poses/occlusions can significantly deteriorate the performance of face recognition systems in non-controlled environments. Partial occlusion, which significantly changes the appearance of part of a face, cannot only cause large performance deterioration of face recognition, but also can cause severe security issues. In this thesis, we focus on the occlusion problem in automatic face recognition in noncontrolled environments. Toward this goal, we propose a framework that consists ...

Min, Rui — Telecom ParisTech


Security/Privacy Analysis of Biometric Hashing and Template Protection for Fingerprint Minutiae

This thesis has two main parts. The first part deals with security and privacy analysis of biometric hashing. The second part introduces a method for fixed-length feature vector extraction and hash generation from fingerprint minutiae. The upsurge of interest in biometric systems has led to development of biometric template protection methods in order to overcome security and privacy problems. Biometric hashing produces a secure binary template by combining a personal secret key and the biometric of a person, which leads to a two factor authentication method. This dissertation analyzes biometric hashing both from a theoretical point of view and in regards to its practical application. For theoretical evaluation of biohashes, a systematic approach which uses estimated entropy based on degree of freedom of a binomial distribution is outlined. In addition, novel practical security and privacy attacks against face image hashing ...

Berkay Topcu — Sabanci University


SPECTRAL MINUTIAE REPRESENTATIONS

,The term biometrics refers to the technologies that measure and analyze human intrinsic physical or behavioral characteristics for authenticating individuals. Nowadays, biometric technology is increasingly deployed in civil and commercial applications. The growing use of biometrics is raising security and privacy concerns. Storing biometric data, known as biometric templates, in a database leads to several privacy risks such as identity fraud and cross matching. A solution is to apply biometric template protection techniques, which aim to make it impossible to recover the biometric data from the templates. The goal of our research is to combine biometric systems with template protection. Aimed at fingerprint recognition, this thesis introduces the Spectral Minutiae Representation method, which enables the combination of a minutiae-based fingerprint recognition system with template protection schemes based on fuzzy commitment or helper data schemes. In this thesis, three spectral minutiae ...

Xu, Haiyung — University of Twente


Dealing with Variability Factors and Its Application to Biometrics at a Distance

This Thesis is focused on dealing with the variability factors in biometric recognition and applications of biometrics at a distance. In particular, this PhD Thesis explores the problem of variability factors assessment and how to deal with them by the incorporation of soft biometrics information in order to improve person recognition systems working at a distance. The proposed methods supported by experimental results show the benefits of adapting the system considering the variability of the sample at hand. Although being relatively young compared to other mature and long-used security technologies, biometrics have emerged in the last decade as a pushing alternative for applications where automatic recognition of people is needed. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for video surveillance systems at a distance, widely distributed in our lifes, and for the final user: forget about PINs and passwords, you ...

Tome, Pedro — Universidad Autónoma de Madrid


Motion detection and human recognition in video sequences

This thesis is concerned with the design of a complete framework that allows the real-time recognition of humans in a video stream acquired by a static camera. For each stage of the processing chain, which takes as input the raw images of the stream and eventually outputs the identity of the persons, we propose an original algorithm. The first algorithm is a background subtraction technique named ViBe. The purpose of ViBe is to detect the parts of the images that contain moving objects. The second algorithm determines which moving objects correspond to individuals. The third algorithm allows the recognition of the detected individuals from their gait. Our background subtraction algorithm, ViBe, uses a collection of samples to model the history of each pixel. The current value of a pixel is classified by comparison with the closest samples that belong to ...

Olivier, Barnich — University of Liege


Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova


Tracking and Planning for Surveillance Applications

Vision and infrared sensors are very common in surveillance and security applications, and there are numerous examples where a critical infrastructure, e.g. a harbor, an airport, or a military camp, is monitored by video surveillance systems. There is a need for automatic processing of sensor data and intelligent control of the sensor in order to obtain efficient and high performance solutions that can support a human operator. This thesis considers two subparts of the complex sensor fusion system; namely target tracking and sensor control.The multiple target tracking problem using particle filtering is studied. In particular, applications where road constrained targets are tracked with an airborne video or infrared camera are considered. By utilizing the information about the road network map it is possible to enhance the target tracking and prediction performance. A dynamic model suitable for on-road target tracking with ...

Skoglar, Per — Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering


Detection of epileptic seizures based on video and accelerometer recordings

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, especially in children. And although the majority of patients can be treated through medication or surgery (70%-75%), a significant group of patients cannot be treated. For this latter group of patients it is advisable to follow the evolution of the disease. This can be done through a long-term automatic monitoring, which gives an objective measure of the number of seizures that the patient has, for example during the night. On the other hand, there is a reduced social control overnight and the parents or caregivers can miss some seizures. In severe seizures, it is sometimes necessary, however, to avoid dangerous situations during or after the seizure (e.g. the danger of suffocation caused by vomiting or a position that obstructs breathing, or the risk of injury during violent movements), and to comfort ...

Cuppens, Kris — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Steganoflage: A New Image Steganography Algorithm

Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio and video files. It comes under the assumption that if the feature is visible, the point of attack is evident, thus the goal here is always to conceal the very existence of the embedded data. It does not replace cryptography but rather boosts the security using its obscurity features. Steganography has various useful applications. However, like any other science it can be used for ill intentions. It has been propelled to the forefront of current security techniques by the remarkable growth in computational power, the increase in security awareness, e.g., individuals, groups, agencies, government and through intellectual pursuit. Steganography’s ultimate objectives, which are undetectability, robustness, resistance to various image processing methods and compression, and capacity of the hidden data, are the main factors ...

Cheddad Abbas — University of Ulster


Visual Analysis of Faces with Application in Biometrics, Forensics and Health Informatics

Computer vision-based analysis of human facial video provides information regarding to expression, diseases symptoms, and physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate. It also provides a convenient source of heartbeat signal to be used in biometrics and forensics. This thesis is a collection of works done in five themes in the realm of computer vision-based facial image analysis: Monitoring elderly patients at private homes, Face quality assessment, Measurement of physiological parameters, Contact-free heartbeat biometrics, and Decision support system for healthcare. The work related to monitoring elderly patients at private homes includes a detailed survey and review of the monitoring technologies relevant to older patients living at home by discussing previous reviews and relevant taxonomies, different scenarios for home monitoring solutions for older patients, sensing and data acquisition techniques, data processing and analysis techniques, available datasets for ...

Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul — Aalborg Univeristy

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