Complex Baseband Modeling and Digital Predistortion for Wideband RF Power Amplifiers

Modern modulation methods as used in 3rd generation mobile communications (UMTS) generate strongly fluctuating transmission signal envelopes with high peak-to-average power ratios. These properties result in significant distortion due to the nonlinear behavior of the radio-frequency power amplifier (RF PA). We propose different nonlinear model structures for such amplifiers, based on memory polynomials and frequency-domain Volterra kernel expansion, where we can reduce the number of free parameters by 80% compared to traditional Volterra series approaches. Because these nonlinear models incorporate memory, we are able to model the nonlinear distortion of RF PAs with sufficient accuracy (e.g., −30 dB relative modeling error ), including the wideband case (bandwidth B = 20 MHz as needed for four-carrier WCDMA). Furthermore, we propose a method to construct RF PA models from frequency-dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversions. For the compensation of the nonlinearities, we analyze ...

Singerl, Peter — Graz University of Technology


Massive MIMO: Fundamentals and System Designs

The last ten years have seen a massive growth in the number of connected wireless devices. Billions of devices are connected and managed by wireless networks. At the same time, each device needs a high throughput to support applications such as voice, real-time video, movies, and games. Demands for wireless throughput and the number of wireless devices will always increase. In addition, there is a growing concern about energy consumption of wireless communication systems. Thus, future wireless systems have to satisfy three main requirements: i) having a high throughput; ii) simultaneously serving many users; and iii) having less energy consumption. Massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology, where a base station (BS) equipped with very large number of antennas (collocated or distributed) serves many users in the same time-frequency resource, can meet the above requirements, and hence, it is a promising candidate technology ...

Ngo, Quoc Hien — Linköping University


Phase Noise and Wideband Transmission in Massive MIMO

In the last decades the world has experienced a massive growth in the demand for wireless services. The recent popularity of hand-held devices with data exchange capabilities over wireless networks, such as smartphones and tablets, increased the wireless data traffic even further. This trend is not expected to cease in the foreseeable future. In fact, it is expected to accelerate as everyday apparatus unrelated with data communications, such as vehicles or household devices, are foreseen to be equipped with wireless communication capabilities. Further, the next generation wireless networks should be designed such that they have increased spectral and energy efficiency, provide uniformly good service to all of the accommodated users and handle many more devices simultaneously. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (Massive MIMO) systems, also termed as large-scale MIMO, very large MIMO or full-dimension MIMO, have recently been proposed as a candidate ...

Pitarokoilis, Antonios — Linköping University


Study of a new multicarrier waveform with low PAPR

OFDM is a multicarrier modulation system widely used in wireline and wireless applications such as DVB-T/T2, Wifi, and LTE, due to its resilience against frequency selective channels compared with the single carrier modulation systems. However, the OFDM signal suffers from large amplitude variations. The fluctuations of the OFDM envelope generate non-linear distortions when we introduce the signal into a non-linear device like the power amplifier. Reducing the variations of the signal improves the power amplifier efficiency, reduces the energy consumption and decreases CO2 emissions. The peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) has been introduced as a random variable that measures the power variations of the signal. There exist several multicarrier modulation systems based on different modulation basis and shaping filters. We first prove in this work that the PAPR depends on this modulation structure. Moreover, the behaviour of the PAPR regarding the ...

Chafii, Marwa — CentraleSupélec/IETR


On MIMO Systems and Adaptive Arrays for Wireless Communication. Analysis and Practical Aspects

This thesis is concerned with the use of multiple antenna elements in wireless communication over frequency non-selective radio channels. Both measurement results and theoretical analysis are presented. New transmit strategies are derived and compared to existing transmit strategies, such as beamforming and space time block coding (STBC). It is found that the best transmission algorithm is largely dependent on the channel characteristics, such as the number of transmit and receive antennas and the existence of a line of sight component. Rayleigh fading multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels are studied using an eigenvalue analysis and exact expressions for the bit error rates and outage capacities for beamforming and STBC is found. In general are MIMO fading channels correlated and there exists a mutual coupling between antenna elements. These findings are supported by indoor MIMO measurements. It is found that the ...

Wennstram, Mattias — Uppsala University


Large Multiuser MIMO Detection: Algorithms and Architectures

After decades of research on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, including paradigm shifts from point-to-point to multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO), an ample literature exists on techniques to exploit the spatial dimension to increase link throughput and network capacity of wireless communication systems. Massive MIMO, which supports hundreds of antennas at the base station (BS), is celebrated as the key enabling technology of the upcoming fifth generation (5G) wireless communication standard. However, the use of large MIMO systems in the future is also indispensable, especially for high-speed wireless backhaul connectivity. Large MIMO systems use tens of antennas in communication terminals, and can afford a large number of antennas on both the transmitter and the receiver sides. While favorable propagation in massive MIMO ensures that reliable performance can be achieved by simple linear processing, the inherent symmetry in large MIMO renders the computational complexity ...

Sarieddeen, Hadi — American University of Beirut (AUB)


Impairments in coordinated cellular networks: analysis, impact on performance and mitigation

Base station cooperation is recognized as a key technology for future wireless cellular communication networks. Considering antennas of distributed base stations and those of multiple terminals within those cells as a distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, this technique has the potential to eliminate inter-cell interference by joint signal processing and to enhance spectral efficiency in this way. Although the theoretical gains are meanwhile well-understood, it still remains challenging to realize the full potential of such cooperative schemes in real-world systems. Among other factors, such as the limited overhead for pilot symbols and for the feedback and backhaul, these performance limitations are related to channel and synchronization impairments, such as channel estimation, feedback quantization and channel aging, as well as imperfect carrier and sampling synchronization among the base stations. Because of these impairments, joint data precoding results to be mismatched with ...

Manolakis, Konstantinos — Technische Universität Berlin


Low-Complexity Iterative Detection Algorithms for Multi-Antenna Systems

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques have been widely employed by dif- ferent wireless systems with many advantages. By using multiple antennas, the system is able to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously and within the same frequency band. The methods known as spatial multiplexing (SM) and spatial diversity (SD) im- proves the high spectral efficiency and link reliability of wireless communication systems without requiring additional transmitting power. By introducing channel coding in the transmission procedure, the information redundancy is introduced to further improve the reliability of SM links and the quality of service for the next generation communication systems. However, the throughput performance of these systems is limited by interference. A number of different interference suppression techniques have been reported in the literature. Theses techniques can be generally categorised into two aspects: the preprocessing techniques at the transmitter side and ...

Peng Li — University of York


Transmission strategies for wireless energy harvesting nodes

Over the last few decades, transistor miniaturization has enabled a tremendous increase in the processing capability of commercial electronic devices, which, combined with the reduction of production costs, has tremendously fostered the usage of the Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) both in terms of number of users and required data rates. In turn, this has led to a tremendous increment in the energetic demand of the ICT sector, which is expected to further grow during the upcoming years, reaching unsustainable levels of greenhouse gas emissions as reported by the European Council. Additionally, the autonomy of battery operated devices is getting reduced year after year since battery technology has not evolved fast enough to cope with the increase of energy consumption associated to the growth of the node’s processing capability. Energy harvesting, which is known as the process of collecting energy ...

Gregori, Maria — Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya


Energy-Efficient Distributed Multicast Beamforming Using Iterative Second-Order Cone Programming

In multi-user (MU) downlink beamforming, a high spectral efficiency along with a low transmit power is achieved by separating multiple users in space rather than in time or frequency using spatially selective transmit beams. For streaming media applications, multi-group multicast (MGM) downlink beamforming is a promising approach to exploit the broadcasting property of the wireless medium to transmit the same information to a group of users. To limit inter-group interference, the individual streams intended for different multicast groups are spatially separated using MGM downlink beamforming. Spatially selective downlink beamforming requires the employment of an array of multiple antennas at the base station (BS). The hardware costs associated with the use of multiple antennas may be prohibitive in practice. A way to avoid the expensive employment of multiple antennas at the BS is to exploit user cooperation in wireless networks where ...

Bornhorst, Nils — Technische Universität Darmstadt


Digital Pre-distortion of Microwave Power Amplifiers

With the advent of spectrally efficient wireless communication systems employing modulation schemes with varying amplitude of the communication signal, linearisation techniques for nonlinear microwave power amplifiers have gained significant interest. The availability of fast and cheap digital processing technology makes digital pre-distortion an attractive candidate as a means for power amplifier linearisation since it promises high power efficiency and fleexibility. Digital pre-distortion is further in line with the current efforts towards software defined radio systems, where a principal aim is to substitute costly and inflexible analogue circuitry with cheap and reprogrammable digital circuitry. Microwave power amplifiers are most efficient in terms of delivered microwave output power vs. supplied power if driven near the saturation point. In this operational mode, the amplifier behaves as a nonlinear device, which introduces undesired distortions in the information bear- ing microwave signal. These nonlinear distortions ...

Aschbacher, E. — Vienna University of Technology


Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology


Advanced Signal Processing Techniques for Two-Way Relaying Networks and Full-Duplex Communication Systems

To enable ultra-high data rate and ubiquitous coverage in future wireless networks, new physical layer techniques are desired. Relaying is a promising technique for future wireless networks since it can boost the coverage and can provide low cost wireless backhauling solutions, as compared to traditional wired backhauling solutions via fiber and copper. Traditional one-way relaying (OWR) techniques suffer from the spectral loss due to the half-duplex (HD) operation at the relay. On one hand, two-way relaying (TWR) allows the communication partners to transmit to and/or receive from the relay simultaneously and thus uses the spectrum more efficiently than OWR. Therefore, we study two-way relays and more specifically multi-pair/multi-user TWR systems with amplify-and-forward (AF) relays. These scenarios suffer from inter-pair or inter-user interference. To deal with the interference, advanced signal processing algorithms, in other words, spatial division multiple access (SDMA) techniques, ...

Zhang, Jianshu — Ilmenau University of Technology


Generalized Noncoherent Ultra-Wideband Receivers

This thesis investigates noncoherent multi-channel ultra-wideband receivers. Noncoherent ultra-wideband receivers promise low power consumption and low processing complexity as they, in contrast to coherent receiver architectures, relinquish the need of complex carrier frequency and phase recovering. Unfortunately, their peak data rate is limited by the delay spread of the multipath radio channel. Noncoherent multi-channel receivers can break this rate limit due to their capability to demodulate multi-carrier signals. Such receivers use an analog front-end to separate the received signals into their sub-channels. In this work, the modeling and optimization of realistic front-end components is addressed and their impact on the system performance of noncoherent multi-channel ultra-wideband receivers is analyzed. With a proposed generalized mathematical framework, it is shown that there exists a variety of noncoherent multi-channel receiver types with similar system performance which differ only in their front-end filters. It ...

Pedroß-Engel, Andreas — Graz University of Technology


Measurement Methods for Estimating the Error Vector Magnitude in OFDM Transceivers

The error vector magnitude (EVM) is a standard metric to quantify the performance of digital communication systems and related building blocks. Regular EVM measurements require expensive equipment featuring inphase and quadrature (IQ) demodulation, wideband analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and dedicated receiver algorithms to demodulate the data symbols. With modern high data rate communication standards that require high bandwidths and low amounts of error, it is difficult to avoid bias due to errors in the measurement chain. This thesis develops and discusses measurement methods that address the above-described issues with EVM measurements. The first method is an extension of the regular EVM, yielding two results from a single measurement. One result equals the regular EVM result, whereas the other excludes potential errors due to mismatches of the I- and Q- paths of direct conversion transmitters and receivers (IQ imbalance). This can be ...

Freiberger, Karl — Graz University of Technology

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