Audio-visual processing and content management techniques, for the study of (human) bioacoustics phenomena

The present doctoral thesis aims towards the development of new long-term, multi-channel, audio-visual processing techniques for the analysis of bioacoustics phenomena. The effort is focused on the study of the physiology of the gastrointestinal system, aiming at the support of medical research for the discovery of gastrointestinal motility patterns and the diagnosis of functional disorders. The term "processing" in this case is quite broad, incorporating the procedures of signal processing, content description, manipulation and analysis, that are applied to all the recorded bioacoustics signals, the auxiliary audio-visual surveillance information (for the monitoring of experiments and the subjects' status), and the extracted audio-video sequences describing the abdominal sound-field alterations. The thesis outline is as follows. The main objective of the thesis, which is the technological support of medical research, is presented in the first chapter. A quick problem definition is initially ...

Dimoulas, Charalampos — Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece


Methods For Detection and Classification In ECG Analysis

The first part of the presented work is focused on measuring of QT intervals. QT interval can be an indicator of the cardiovascular health of the patient and detect any potential abnormalities. The QT interval is measured from the onset of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave. However, measurements for the end of the T wave are often highly subjective and the corresponding verification is difficult. Here we propose two methods of QT interval measuring – wavelet based and template matching method. Methods are compared with each other and tested on standard QT database. The second part of the presented work is focused on modelling of arrhythmias using McSharry’s model followed with classification using an artificial neural network. The proposed method uses pre-processing of signals with Linear Approximation Distance Thresholding method and Line Segment Clustering method ...

Kicmerova, Dina — Brno University of Technology / Department of Biomedical Engineering


Spatio-temporal characterization of the surface electrocardiogram for catheter ablation outcome prediction in persistent atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice, and one of the main causes of ictus and strokes. Despite the advances in the comprehension of its mechanisms, its thorough characterization and the quantification of its effects on the human heart are still an open issue. In particular, the choice of the most appropriate therapy is frequently a hard task. Radiofrequency catheter ablation (CA) is becoming one of the most popular solutions for the treatment of the disease. Yet, very little is known about its impact on heart substrate during AF, thus leading to an inaccurate selection of positive responders to therapy and a low success rate; hence, the need for advanced signal processing tools able to quantify AF impact on heart substrate and assess the effectiveness of the CA therapy in an objective and ...

Marianna Meo — Université Nice Sophia Antipolis


EEG-Biofeedback and Epilepsy: Concept, Methodology and Tools for (Neuro)therapy Planning and Objective Evaluation

Objective diagnosis and therapy evaluation are still challenging tasks for many neurological disorders. This is highly related to the diversity of cases and the variety of treatment modalities available. Especially in the case of epilepsy, which is a complex disorder not well-explained at the biochemical and physiological levels, there is the need for investigations for novel features, which can be extracted and quantified from electrophysiological signals in clinical practice. Neurotherapy is a complementary treatment applied in various disorders of the central nervous system, including epilepsy. The method is subsumed under behavioral medicine and is considered an operant conditioning in psychological terms. Although the application areas of this promising unconventional approach are rapidly increasing, the method is strongly debated, since the neurophysiological underpinnings of the process are not yet well understood. Therefore, verification of the efficacy of the treatment is one ...

Kirlangic, Mehmet Eylem — Technische Universitaet Ilmenau


Contributions to signal analysis and processing using compressed sensing techniques

Chapter 2 contains a short introduction to the fundamentals of compressed sensing theory, which is the larger context of this thesis. We start with introducing the key concepts of sparsity and sparse representations of signals. We discuss the central problem of compressed sensing, i.e. how to adequately recover sparse signals from a small number of measurements, as well as the multiple formulations of the reconstruction problem. A large part of the chapter is devoted to some of the most important conditions necessary and/or sufficient to guarantee accurate recovery. The aim is to introduce the reader to the basic results, without the burden of detailed proofs. In addition, we also present a few of the popular reconstruction and optimization algorithms that we use throughout the thesis. Chapter 3 presents an alternative sparsity model known as analysis sparsity, that offers similar recovery ...

Cleju, Nicolae — "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi


Transformation methods in signal processing

This dissertation is concerned with the application of the theory of rational functions in signal processing. The PhD thesis summarizes the corresponding results of the author’s research. Since the systems of rational functions are defined by the collection of inverse poles with multiplicities, the following parameters should be determined: the number, the positions and the multiplicities of the inverse poles. Therefore, we develop the hyperbolic variant of the so-called Nelder–Mead and the particle swarm optimization algorithm. In addition, the latter one is integrated into a more general multi-dimensional framework. Furthermore, we perform a detailed stability and error analysis of these methods. We propose an electrocardiogram signal generator based on spline interpolation. It turns to be an efficient tool for testing and evaluating signal models, filtering techniques, etc. In this thesis, the synthesized heartbeats are used to test the diagnostic distortion ...

Kovács, Péter — Eötvös L. University, Budapest, Hungary


Extraction and Denoising of Fetal ECG Signals

Congenital heart defects are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths. The fetal electrocardiogram (fECG), which is believed to contain much more information as compared with conventional sonographic methods, can be measured by placing electrodes on the mother’s abdomen. However, it has very low power and is mixed with several sources of noise and interference, including the strong maternal ECG (mECG). In previous studies, several methods have been proposed for the extraction of fECG signals recorded from the maternal body surface. However, these methods require a large number of sensors, and are ineffective with only one or two sensors. In this study, state modeling, statistical and deterministic approaches are proposed for capturing weak traces of fetal cardiac signals. These three methods implement different models of the quasi-periodicity of the cardiac signal. In the first approach, the heart rate and its ...

Niknazar, Mohammad — University of Grenoble


Automatic Detection, Classification and Restoration of Defects in Historical Images

Historical photos are significant attestations of the inheritance of the past. Since Photography is an art that is more than 150 years old, more and more diffuse are the photographic archives all over the world. Nevertheless, time and bad preservation corrupts physical supports, and many important historical documents risk to be ruined and their content lost. Therefore solutions must be implemented to preserve their state and to recover damaged information. This PhD thesis proposes a general methodology, and several applicative solutions, to handle these problems, by means of digitization and digital restoration. The purpose is to create a useful tool to support non-expert users in the restoration process of damaged historical images. The content of this thesis is outlined as follows: Chapter 1 gives an overview on the problems related to management and preservation of cultural repositories, and discusses about ...

Mazzola, Giuseppe — Università degli studi di Palermo - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica


Best Signal Selection with Automatic Delay Compensation in VoIP Environment

In the last decades, air traffic spread more and more in the world, connecting more and more places. At the same time, the need to manage all the flights correctly and securely increased. Air traffic authorities imposed and updated several standards for the air traffic management (ATM) system, keeping in pace with the growing traffic flow. To achieve this, special voice communication systems (VCS) were developed. They ensure the communication between the pilots and the operators from the ground control centers. When a communication is initiated between the aircraft’s pilot and the ground air traffic control operator, various systems are used. The pilot speaks through the aircraft’s radio station and the signal is received by several ground radio stations. Then, the signal from each ground radio station arrives on different paths to the control center. Here one of the received ...

Marinescu, Radu-Sebastian — University Politehnica of Bucharest


Heart rate variability : linear and nonlinear analysis with applications in human physiology

Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in today’s society. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that these diseases make up about 30% of total global deaths and that heart diseases have no geographic, gender or socioeconomic boundaries. Therefore, detecting cardiac irregularities early-stage and a correct treatment are very important. However, this requires a good physiological understanding of the cardiovascular system. The heart is stimulated electrically by the brain via the autonomic nervous system, where sympathetic and vagal pathways are always interacting and modulating heart rate. Continuous monitoring of the heart activity is obtained by means of an ElectroCardioGram (ECG). Studying the fluctuations of heart beat intervals over time reveals a lot of information and is called heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. A reduction of HRV has been reported in several cardiological and noncardiological diseases. Moreover, HRV also has a prognostic ...

Vandeput, Steven — KU Leuven


Contributions to the Information Fusion : application to Obstacle Recognition in Visible and Infrared Images

The interest for the intelligent vehicle field has been increased during the last years, must probably due to an important number of road accidents. Many accidents could be avoided if a device attached to the vehicle would assist the driver with some warnings when dangerous situations are about to appear. In recent years, leading car developers have recorded significant efforts and support research works regarding the intelligent vehicle field where they propose solutions for the existing problems, especially in the vision domain. Road detection and following, pedestrian or vehicle detection, recognition and tracking, night vision, among others are examples of applications which have been developed and improved recently. Still, a lot of challenges and unsolved problems remain in the intelligent vehicle domain. Our purpose in this thesis is to design an Obstacle Recognition system for improving the road security by ...

Apatean, Anca Ioana — Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen


Privacy Preserving Processing of Biomedical Signals with Application to Remote Healthcare Systems

To preserve the privacy of patients and service providers in biomedical signal processing applications, particular attention has been given to the use of secure multiparty computation techniques. This thesis focuses on the development of a privacy preserving automatic diagnosis system whereby a remote server classifies a biomedical signal provided by the patient without getting any information about the signal itself and the final result of the classification. Specifically, we present and compare two methods for the secure classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals: the former based on linear branching programs and the latter relying on neural networks. Moreover a protocol that performs a preliminary evaluation of the signal quality is proposed. The thesis deals with all the requirements and difficulties related to working with data that must stay encrypted during all the computation steps. The proposed systems prove that carrying out ...

Lazzeretti, Riccardo — University of Siena


Analysis, Modelling, and Simulation of an Integrated Multisensor System for Maritime Border Control

In this dissertation a notional multi-sensor system acting in a maritime border control scenario for Homeland Security (HS) is analyzed, modelled, and simulated. The functions performed by the system are the detection, tracking, identification and classification of naval targets that enter a sea region, the evaluation of their threat level and the selection of a suitable reaction to them. The emulated system is composed of two platforms carrying multiple sensors: a land based platform, located on the coast, and an air platform, moving on an elliptic trajectory in front of the coast. The land based platform is equipped with a Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) radar, an infrared camera (IR) and a station belonging to an Automatic Identification System (AIS). The air platform carries an Airborne Early Warning Radar (AEWR) that can operate on a spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode, ...

Giompapa, Sofia — Universita di Pisa


Extraction of efficient and characteristic features of multidimensional time series

In numerous signal processing applications one disposes of multiple probes, delivering simultaneously information about one or multiple observed processes. The resulting multidimensional time series are often highly redundant and may contain stochastic contributions. The perception of the useful information becomes therefore very difficult and sometimes impossible. Thus, the major issue of concern of this thesis resides in the development of novel algorithms for the extraction of the salient and characteristic features of multidimensional time series. The proposed algorithms are based on parametric signal processing, namely we assume that the features of the experimental data can be represented efficiently by a specific model. We present a global framework for the selection of a specific model out of the large span of techniques proposed in the literature. For the selection of the model classes we use, in addition to prior knowledge about ...

Vetter, Rolf — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Discrete-time speech processing with application to emotion recognition

The subject of this PhD thesis is the efficient and robust processing and analysis of the audio recordings that are derived from a call center. The thesis is comprised of two parts. The first part is dedicated to dialogue/non-dialogue detection and to speaker segmentation. The systems that are developed are prerequisite for detecting (i) the audio segments that actually contain a dialogue between the system and the call center customer and (ii) the change points between the system and the customer. This way the volume of the audio recordings that need to be processed is significantly reduced, while the system is automated. To detect the presence of a dialogue several systems are developed. This is the first effort found in the international literature that the audio channel is exclusively exploited. Also, it is the first time that the speaker utterance ...

Kotti, Margarita — Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

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