Digital design and experimental validation of high-performance real-time OFDM systems

The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation is to address a number of challenges encountered in the digital baseband design of modern and future wireless communication systems. The fast and continuous evolution of wireless communications has been driven by the ambitious goal of providing ubiquitous services that could guarantee high throughput, reliability of the communication link and satisfy the increasing demand for efficient re-utilization of the heavily populated wireless spectrum. To cope with these ever-growing performance requirements, researchers around the world have introduced sophisticated broadband physical (PHY)-layer communication schemes able to accommodate higher bandwidth, which indicatively include multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver and are capable of delivering improved spectral efficiency by applying interference management policies. The merging of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) schemes with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) offers a flexible signal processing substrate to implement ...

Font-Bach, Oriol — Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC)


Multimedia Content Analysis, Indexing and Summarization: A Perspective on Real-Life Use Cases

The problem of finding images, video clips and music, given time, place, interest and mood has kept an immense number of scientists and technology developers busy in the past twenty years. However, straightforward attempts to apply textbased search to non-textual data still seem to be the only viable solution. In spite of the numerous ideas proposed so far in the MIR (Multimedia Information Retrieval) research field, it is remarkable that hardly any significant success story, and in particular a commercially relevant one, has been reported. This thesis addresses the reasons that have prevented broad practical deployment of theories and algorithms for searching and retrieving content in multimedia data collections and proposes novel, generic and robust solutions. In particular, the thesis focuses on the problems that typically emerge when dealing with realistic use cases built around real-life systems, noisy data and ...

Naci, Suphi Umut — Delft University of Technology


Facial Soft Biometrics: Methods, Applications and Solutions

This dissertation studies soft biometrics traits, their applicability in different security and commercial scenarios, as well as related usability aspects. We place the emphasis on human facial soft biometric traits which constitute the set of physical, adhered or behavioral human characteristics that can partially differentiate, classify and identify humans. Such traits, which include characteristics like age, gender, skin and eye color, the presence of glasses, moustache or beard, inherit several advantages such as ease of acquisition, as well as a natural compatibility with how humans perceive their surroundings. Specifically, soft biometric traits are compatible with the human process of classifying and recalling our environment, a process which involves constructions of hierarchical structures of different refined traits. This thesis explores these traits, and their application in soft biometric systems (SBSs), and specifically focuses on how such systems can achieve different goals ...

Dantcheva, Antitza — EURECOM / Telecom ParisTech


Steganoflage: A New Image Steganography Algorithm

Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio and video files. It comes under the assumption that if the feature is visible, the point of attack is evident, thus the goal here is always to conceal the very existence of the embedded data. It does not replace cryptography but rather boosts the security using its obscurity features. Steganography has various useful applications. However, like any other science it can be used for ill intentions. It has been propelled to the forefront of current security techniques by the remarkable growth in computational power, the increase in security awareness, e.g., individuals, groups, agencies, government and through intellectual pursuit. Steganography’s ultimate objectives, which are undetectability, robustness, resistance to various image processing methods and compression, and capacity of the hidden data, are the main factors ...

Cheddad Abbas — University of Ulster


Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova


MIMO Designs for filter bank multicarrier and multiantenna systems based on OQAM

From the perspective of increasingly data rate requirements in mobile communications, it is deemed necessary to do further research so that the future goals can be reached. To that end, the radio-based communications are resorting to multicarrier modulations and spatial diversity. Until today, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation is regarded as the dominant technology. On one hand, the OFDM modulation is able to accommodate multiantenna configurations in a very straightforward manner. On the other hand, the poor stopband attenuation exhibited by the OFDM modulation, highlights that a definitely tight synchronization is required. In addition, the cyclic prefix (CP) has to be sufficiently long to avoid inter-block interference, which may substantially reduce the spectral efficiency. In order to overcome the OFDM drawbacks, the filter bank multicarrier modulation based on OQAM (FBMC/OQAM) is introduced. This modulation does not need any ...

López, Màrius Caus — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)


Audio-visual processing and content management techniques, for the study of (human) bioacoustics phenomena

The present doctoral thesis aims towards the development of new long-term, multi-channel, audio-visual processing techniques for the analysis of bioacoustics phenomena. The effort is focused on the study of the physiology of the gastrointestinal system, aiming at the support of medical research for the discovery of gastrointestinal motility patterns and the diagnosis of functional disorders. The term "processing" in this case is quite broad, incorporating the procedures of signal processing, content description, manipulation and analysis, that are applied to all the recorded bioacoustics signals, the auxiliary audio-visual surveillance information (for the monitoring of experiments and the subjects' status), and the extracted audio-video sequences describing the abdominal sound-field alterations. The thesis outline is as follows. The main objective of the thesis, which is the technological support of medical research, is presented in the first chapter. A quick problem definition is initially ...

Dimoulas, Charalampos — Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece


Distributed Signal Processing for Binaural Hearing Aids

Over the last centuries, hearing aids have evolved from crude and bulky horn-shaped instruments to lightweight and almost invisible digital signal processing devices. While most of the research has focused on the design of monaural apparatus, the use of a wireless link has been recently advocated to enable data transfer between hearing aids such as to obtain a binaural system. The availability of a wireless link offers brand new perspectives but also poses great technical challenges. It requires the design of novel signal processing schemes that address the restricted communication bitrates, processing delays and power consumption limitations imposed by wireless hearing aids. The goal of this dissertation is to address these issues at both a theoretical and a practical level. We start by taking a distributed source coding view on the problem of binaural noise reduction. The proposed analysis allows ...

Roy, Olivier — EPFL


Interweave/Underlay Cognitive Radio Techniques and Applications in Satellite Communication Systems

The demand for precious radio spectrum is continuously increasing while the available radio frequency resource has become scarce due to spectrum segmentation and the dedicated frequency allocation of standardized wireless systems. This scarcity has led to the concept of cognitive radio communication which comprises a variety of techniques capable of allowing the coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems over the same spectrum. In this context, this thesis focuses on interweave and underlay cognitive radio paradigms which are widely considered as important enablers for realising cognitive radio technology. In the interweave paradigm, an unlicensed user explores the spectral holes by means of some spectrum awareness methods and utilizes the available spectral availabilities opportunistically while in the underlay paradigm, an unlicensed user is allowed to coexist with the licensed user only if sufficient protection to the licensed user can be guaranteed. Starting ...

Sharma, Shree Krishna — SnT, University of Luxembourg


Transmission Strategies for Interfering Networks with Finite Rate and Outdated Channel Feedback

The emergence of very capable mobile terminals, e.g. smartphones or tablets, has dramatically increased the demand of wireless data traffic in recent years. Current growth forecasts elucidate that wireless communication standards will not be able to afford future traffic demands, thus many research efforts have been oriented towards increasing the efficiency of wireless networks. Wireless communications introduce many issues not present in wired systems, e.g. multipath effects or interference. Some of these issues may be tackled by the use of multiple antennas, i.e. MIMO technologies. This solution allows increasing not only the reliability and robustness of the communications, i.e. the diversity gain, but also its efficiency, i.e. the multiplexing gain or degrees of freedom (DoF). The DoF describe the slope of channel capacity at very high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. For a point-to-point (P2P) communication, assuming that the wireless channel response ...

Torrellas, Marc — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya


Study of the Effects Produced by Time Modulation Applied to an Antenna Array in Digital Transmission Systems

An ever-increasing demand for higher mobility, capacity and reliability, together with a definitive compromise with sustainability, are the hallmarks of mobile and wireless communications systems nowadays. Under these premises, smart antenna devices -capable of sensing the electromagnetic environment and suitably adapting its radiation features- are correspondingly called to play a crucial role. In this sense, today's wireless standards consider multiple-antenna techniques in order to exploit space diversity, spatial multiplexing and beamforming to achieve better levels of reliability and capacity. Such advantages, however, are obtained at the expense of increased system complexity which may be unaffordable in terms of size and energy efficiency. Consequently, some technical challenges remain to develop the adequate antenna technologies capable of supporting the aforementioned features in a limited physical space that the mobility demand dictates. The concept of time-modulated array (TMA) is a feasible multi-antenna technique ...

Maneiro-Catoria, Roberto — University of A Coruña


Design and applications of Filterbank structures implementing Reed-Solomon codes

In nowadays communication systems, error correction provides robust data transmission through imperfect (noisy) channels. Error correcting codes are a crucial component in most storage and communication systems – wired or wireless –, e.g. GSM, UMTS, xDSL, CD/DVD. At least as important as the data integrity issue is the recent realization that error correcting codes fundamentally change the trade-offs in system design. High-integrity, low redundancy coding can be applied to increase data rate, or battery life time or by reducing hardware costs, making it possible to enter mass market. When it comes to the design of error correcting codes and their properties, there are two main theories that play an important role in this work. Classical coding theory aims at finding the best code given an available block length. This thesis focuses on the ubiquitous Reed-Solomon codes, one of the major ...

Van Meerbergen, Geert — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Massive MIMO: Fundamentals and System Designs

The last ten years have seen a massive growth in the number of connected wireless devices. Billions of devices are connected and managed by wireless networks. At the same time, each device needs a high throughput to support applications such as voice, real-time video, movies, and games. Demands for wireless throughput and the number of wireless devices will always increase. In addition, there is a growing concern about energy consumption of wireless communication systems. Thus, future wireless systems have to satisfy three main requirements: i) having a high throughput; ii) simultaneously serving many users; and iii) having less energy consumption. Massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology, where a base station (BS) equipped with very large number of antennas (collocated or distributed) serves many users in the same time-frequency resource, can meet the above requirements, and hence, it is a promising candidate technology ...

Ngo, Quoc Hien — Linköping University


Impact of channel state information on the analysis and design of multiantenna communication systems

During the last decade, there has been a steady increase in the demand of high data rates that are to be supported by wireless communication applications. Among the different solutions that have been proposed by the research community to cope with this new demand, the utilization of multiple antennas arises as one of the best candidates due to the fact that it provides both an increase in reliability and also in information transmission rate. Although the use of multiple antennas at the receiver side dates back from the sixties, the full potential of multiple antennas at both communication ends has been both theoretically and practically recognized in the last few years. The design of proper multi-antenna communication systems to satisfy the high data rates demand depends not only on the chosen figure of merit or performance metric, but also on ...

Payaró Llisterri, Miquel — Centre Technologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya


Full-Duplex Wireless: Self-interference Modeling, Digital Cancellation, and System Studies

In the recent years, a significant portion of the research within the field of wireless communications has been motivated by two aspects: the constant increase in the number of wireless devices and the higher and higher data rate requirements of the individual applications. The undisputed outcome of these phenomena is the heavy congestion of the suitable spectral resources. This has inspired many innovative solutions for improving the spectral efficiency of the wireless communications systems by facilitating more simultaneous connections and higher data rates without requiring additional spectrum. These include technologies such as in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulation, multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems, and the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform, among others. Even though these existing solutions have greatly improved the spectral efficiency of wireless communications, even more advanced techniques are needed for fulfilling the future data transfer requirements in the ultra high ...

Korpi, Dani — Tampere University of Technology

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