Low-Complexity Iterative Detection Algorithms for Multi-Antenna Systems

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques have been widely employed by dif- ferent wireless systems with many advantages. By using multiple antennas, the system is able to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously and within the same frequency band. The methods known as spatial multiplexing (SM) and spatial diversity (SD) im- proves the high spectral efficiency and link reliability of wireless communication systems without requiring additional transmitting power. By introducing channel coding in the transmission procedure, the information redundancy is introduced to further improve the reliability of SM links and the quality of service for the next generation communication systems. However, the throughput performance of these systems is limited by interference. A number of different interference suppression techniques have been reported in the literature. Theses techniques can be generally categorised into two aspects: the preprocessing techniques at the transmitter side and ...

Peng Li — University of York


Scalable Single and Multiple Description Scalar Quantization

Scalable representation of a source (e.g., image/video/3D mesh) enables decoding of the encoded bit-stream on a variety of end-user terminals with varying display, storage and processing capabilities. Furthermore, it allows for source communication via channels with different transmission bandwidths, as the source rate can be easily adapted to match the available channel bandwidth. From a different perspective, error-resilience against channel losses is also very important when transmitting scalable source streams over lossy transmission channels. Driven by the aforementioned requirements of scalable representation and error-resilience, this dissertation focuses on the analysis and design of scalable single and multiple description scalar quantizers. In the first part of this dissertation, we consider the design of scalable wavelet-based semi-regular 3D mesh compression systems. In this context, our design methodology thoroughly analyzes different modules of the mesh coding system in order to single-out appropriate design ...

Satti, Shahid Mahmood — Vrije Universiteit Brussel


Content Scalability in Multiple Description Image and Video Coding

High compression ratio, scalability and reliability are the main issues for transmitting multimedia content over best effort networks. Scalable image and video coding meets the user requirements by truncating the scalable bitstream at different quality, resolution and frame rate. However, the performance of scalable coding deteriorates rapidly over packet networks if the base layer packets are lost during transmission. Multiple description coding (MDC) has emerged as an effective source coding technique for robust image and video transmission over lossy networks. In this research problem of incorporating scalability in MDC for robust image and video transmission over best effort network is addressed. The first contribution of this thesis is to propose a strategy for generating more than two descriptions using multiple description scalar quantizer (MDSQ) with an objective to jointly decoded any number of descriptions in balanced and unbalanced manner. The ...

Majid, Muhammad — University of Sheffield


Design and Implementation of Efficient Algorithms for Wireless MIMO Communication Systems

In the last decade, one of the most significant technological developments that led to the new broadband wireless generation is the communication via multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. MIMO technologies have been adopted by many wireless standards such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), Wordlwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). This is mainly due to their ability to increase the maximum transmission rates, together with the achieved reliability and coverage of current wireless communications, all without the need for additional bandwidth nor transmit power. Nevertheless, the advantages provided by MIMO systems come at the expense of a substantial increase in the cost to deploy multiple antennas and also in the receiver complexity, which has a major impact on the power consumption. Therefore, the design of low-complexity receivers is an important issue which is tackled throughout this ...

Roger, Sandra — Universitat Politècnica de València (Technical University of Valencia)


Advances in Perceptual Stereo Audio Coding Using Linear Prediction Techniques

A wide range of techniques for coding a single-channel speech and audio signal has been developed over the last few decades. In addition to pure redundancy reduction, sophisticated source and receiver models have been considered for reducing the bit-rate. Traditionally, speech and audio coders are based on different principles and thus each of them offers certain advantages. With the advent of high capacity channels, networks, and storage systems, the bit-rate versus quality compromise will no longer be the major issue; instead, attributes like low-delay, scalability, computational complexity, and error concealments in packet-oriented networks are expected to be the major selling factors. Typical audio coders such as MP3 and AAC are based on subband or transform coding techniques that are not easily reconcilable with a low-delay requirement. The reasons for their inherently longer delay are the relatively long band splitting filters ...

Biswas, Arijit — Technische Universiteit Eindhoven


Optimization of Coding of AR Sources for Transmission Across Channels with Loss

Source coding concerns the representation of information in a source signal using as few bits as possible. In the case of lossy source coding, it is the encoding of a source signal using the fewest possible bits at a given distortion or, at the lowest possible distortion given a specified bit rate. Channel coding is usually applied in combination with source coding to ensure reliable transmission of the (source coded) information at the maximal rate across a channel given the properties of this channel. In this thesis, we consider the coding of auto-regressive (AR) sources which are sources that can be modeled as auto-regressive processes. The coding of AR sources lends itself to linear predictive coding. We address the problem of joint source/channel coding in the setting of linear predictive coding of AR sources. We consider channels in which individual ...

Arildsen, Thomas — Aalborg University


Statistical Physics Approach to Design and Analysis of Multiuser Systems Under Channel Uncertainty

Code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with random spreading and channel uncertainty at the receiver are studied. Frequency selective single antenna, as well as, narrowband multiple antenna channels are considered. Rayleigh fading is assumed in all cases. General Bayesian approach is used to derive both iterative and non-iterative estimators whose performance is obtained in the large system limit via the replica method from statistical physics. The effect of spatial correlation on the performance of a multiple antenna CDMA system operating in a flat-fading channel is studied. Per-antenna spreading (PAS) with random signature sequences and spatial multiplexing is used at the transmitter. Non-iterative multiuser detectors (MUDs) using imperfect channel state information (CSI) are derived. Training symbol based channel estimators having mismatched a priori knowledge about the antenna correlation are considered. Both the channel estimator and the MUD are shown to admit a simple ...

Vehkapera, Mikko — Norwegian University of Science and Technology


Distributed Source Coding. Tools and Applications to Video Compression

Distributed source coding is a technique that allows to compress several correlated sources, without any cooperation between the encoders, and without rate loss provided that the decoding is joint. Motivated by this principle, distributed video coding has emerged, exploiting the correlation between the consecutive video frames, tremendously simplifying the encoder, and leaving the task of exploiting the correlation to the decoder. The first part of our contributions in this thesis presents the asymmetric coding of binary sources that are not uniform. We analyze the coding of non-uniform Bernoulli sources, and that of hidden Markov sources. For both sources, we first show that exploiting the distribution at the decoder clearly increases the decoding capabilities of a given channel code. For the binary symmetric channel modeling the correlation between the sources, we propose a tool to estimate its parameter, thanks to an ...

Toto-Zarasoa, Velotiaray — INRIA Rennes-Bretagne Atlantique, Universite de Rennes 1


Effects of Channel Estimation and Implementation on the Performance of MIMO Wireless Systems

Bit-rate and quality of service demands of new wireless communication standards are pushing signal theory and algorithm implementation to their limits. One of the main strategies which are being used to achieve the demanded rates is the multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) technique, which employs multiple antennas, both at transmission and reception. This PhD dissertation concentrates on the analysis of the effects of channel estimation, specially complex due to the number of parameters to estimate, on the performance of MIMO detectors, focusing on both practical and theoretical aspects. The practical analysis has been addressed by designing and developing a real-time wireless MIMO communication platform. A whole 2 X 2 system has been implemented which has allowed to evaluate the eects of a real hardware implementation on the performance of the MIMO receiver. A zero-forcing (ZF) detector and a sphere decoder (SD) ...

Mendicute, Mikel — University of Mondragon


Robust and multiresolution video delivery : From H.26x to Matching pursuit based technologies

With the joint development of networking and digital coding technologies multimedia and more particularly video services are clearly becoming one of the major consumers of the new information networks. The rapid growth of the Internet and computer industry however results in a very heterogeneous infrastructure commonly overloaded. Video service providers have nevertheless to oer to their clients the best possible quality according to their respective capabilities and communication channel status. The Quality of Service is not only inuenced by the compression artifacts, but also by unavoidable packet losses. Hence, the packet video stream has clearly to fulll possibly contradictory requirements, that are coding eciency and robustness to data loss. The rst contribution of this thesis is the complete modeling of the video Quality of Service (QoS) in standard and more particularly MPEG-2 applications. The performance of Forward Error Control (FEC) ...

Frossard, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Watermark-based error concealment algorithms for low bit rate video communications

In this work, a novel set of robust watermark-based error concealment (WEC) algorithms are proposed. Watermarking is used to introduce redundancy to the transmitted data with little or no increase in its bit rate during transmission. The proposed algorithms involve generating a low resolution version of a video frame and seamlessly embedding it as a watermark in the frame itself during encoding. At the receiver, the watermark is extracted from the reconstructed frame and the lost information is recovered using the extracted watermark signal, thus enhancing its perceptual quality. Three DCT-based spread spectrum watermark embedding techniques are presented in this work. The first technique uses a multiplicative Gaussian pseudo-noise with a pre-defined spreading gain and fixed chip rate. The second one is its adaptively scaled version and the third technique uses informed watermarking. Two versions of the low resolution reference, ...

Adsumilli, Chowdary — University of California, Santa Barbara


Multiple Description Coding for Path Diversity Video Streaming

In the current heterogeneous communication environments, the great variety of multimedia systems and applications combined with fast evolution of networking architectures and topologies, give rise to new research problems related to the various elements of the communication chain. This includes, the ever present problem in video communications, which results from the need for coping with transmission errors and losses. In this context, video streaming with path diversity appeared as a novel communication framework, involving different technological fields and posing several research challenges. The research work carried out in this thesis is a contribution to robust video coding and adaptation techniques in the field of Multiple Description Coding (MDC) for multipath video streaming. The thesis starts with a thorough study of MDC and its theoretical basis followed by a description of the most important practical implementation aspects currently available in literature. ...

Correia, Pedro Daniel Frazão — University of Coimbra


Lossless and nearly lossless digital video coding

In lossless coding, compresssion and decompression of source data result in the exact recovery of the individual elements of the original source data. Lossless image / video coding is necessary in applications where no loss of pixel values is tolerable. Examples are medical imaging, remote sensing, in image/video archives and studio applications where tandem- and trans-coding are used in editing, which can lead to accumulating errors. Nearly-lossless coding is used in applications where a small error, defined as a maximum error or as a root mean square (rms) error, is tolerable. In lossless embedded coding, a losslessly coded bit stream can be decoded at any bit rate lower than the lossless bit rate. In this thesis, research on embedded lossless video coding based on a motion compensated framework, similar to that of MPEG-2, is presented. Transforms that map integers into ...

Abhayaratne, Charith — University of Bath


Distributed Video Coding for Wireless Lightweight Multimedia Applications

In the modern wireless age, lightweight multimedia technology stimulates attractive commercial applications on a grand scale as well as highly specialized niche markets. In this regard, the design of efficient video compression systems meeting such key requirements as very low encoding complexity, transmission error robustness and scalability, is no straightforward task. The answer can be found in fundamental information theoretic results, according to which efficient compression can be achieved by leveraging knowledge of the source statistics at the decoder only, giving rise to distributed, or alias Wyner-Ziv, video coding. This dissertation engineers efficient lightweight Wyner-Ziv video coding schemes emphasizing on several design aspects and applications. The first contribution of this dissertation focuses on the design of effective side information generation techniques so as to boost the compression capabilities of Wyner-Ziv video coding systems. To this end, overlapped block motion estimation ...

Deligiannis, Nikos — Vrije Universiteit Brussel


Design of Limited Feedback for Robust MMSE Precoding in Multiuser MISO Systems

In this thesis, we consider a multiuser system with a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and only one antenna at each receiver user. This system, which is termed MUMISO (Multi User Multiple Input/Single Output), is of use to model the downlink of a wireless communication system, where multiple antennas at the base station transmit to several users with usually only one antenna at each receiving unit. This downlink channel is also called Broadcast Channel (BC). When considering this broadcast channel, the centralized transmitter clearly has more degrees of freedom than each of the receivers. Therefore, it is appropriate to separate the signals by applying precoding at the transmitter. To be able to design precoding, the transmitter needs knowledge about the channel states of the different receivers. In the case of Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) systems, this knowledge can be obtained ...

Castro Castro, Paula María — University of Coruna (UDC)

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