## Sparse Sensing for Statistical Inference: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications (2016)

Distributed Signal Processing Algorithms for Wireless Networks

Distributed signal processing algorithms have become a key approach for statistical inference in wireless networks and applications such as wireless sensor networks and smart grids. It is well known that distributed processing techniques deal with the extraction of information from data collected at nodes that are distributed over a geographic area. In this context, for each specific node, a set of neighbor nodes collect their local information and transmit the estimates to a specific node. Then, each specific node combines the collected information together with its local estimate to generate an improved estimate. In this thesis, novel distributed cooperative algorithms for inference in ad hoc, wireless sensor networks and smart grids are investigated. Low-complexity and effective algorithms to perform statistical inference in a distributed way are devised. A number of innovative approaches for dealing with node failures, compression of data ...

Xu, Songcen — University of York

Signal processing algorithms for wireless acoustic sensor networks

Recent academic developments have initiated a paradigm shift in the way spatial sensor data can be acquired. Traditional localized and regularly arranged sensor arrays are replaced by sensor nodes that are randomly distributed over the entire spatial field, and which communicate with each other or with a master node through wireless communication links. Together, these nodes form a so-called ‘wireless sensor network’ (WSN). Each node of a WSN has a local sensor array and a signal processing unit to perform computations on the acquired data. The advantage of WSNs compared to traditional (wired) sensor arrays, is that many more sensors can be used that physically cover the full spatial field, which typically yields more variety (and thus more information) in the signals. It is likely that future data acquisition, control and physical monitoring, will heavily rely on this type of ...

Bertrand, Alexander — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Robust Adaptive Machine Learning Algorithms for Distributed Signal Processing

Distributed networks comprising a large number of nodes, e.g., Wireless Sensor Networks, Personal Computers (PC’s), laptops, smart phones, etc., which cooperate with each other in order to reach a common goal, constitute a promising technology for several applications. Typical examples include: distributed environmental monitoring, acoustic source localization, power spectrum estimation, etc. Sophisticated cooperation mechanisms can significantly benefit the learning process, through which the nodes achieve their common objective. In this dissertation, the problem of adaptive learning in distributed networks is studied, focusing on the task of distributed estimation. A set of nodes sense information related to certain parameters and the estimation of these parameters constitutes the goal. Towards this direction, nodes exploit locally sensed measurements as well as information springing from interactions with other nodes of the network. Throughout this dissertation, the cooperation among the nodes follows the diffusion optimization ...

Chouvardas, Symeon — National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

This dissertation deals with the distributed processing techniques for parameter estimation and efficient data-gathering in wireless communication and sensor networks. The estimation problem consists in inferring a set of parameters from temporal and spatial noisy observations collected by different nodes that monitor an area or field. The objective is to derive an estimate that is as accurate as the one that would be obtained if each node had access to the information across the entire network. With the aim of enabling an energy aware and low-complexity distributed implementation of the estimation task, several useful optimization techniques that generally yield linear estimators were derived in the literature. Up to now, most of the works considered that the nodes are interested in estimating the same vector of global parameters. This scenario can be viewed as a special case of a more general ...

Bogdanovic, Nikola — University of Patras

Adaptive Nonlocal Signal Restoration and Enhancement Techniques for High-Dimensional Data

The large number of practical applications involving digital images has motivated a significant interest towards restoration solutions that improve the visual quality of the data under the presence of various acquisition and compression artifacts. Digital images are the results of an acquisition process based on the measurement of a physical quantity of interest incident upon an imaging sensor over a specified period of time. The quantity of interest depends on the targeted imaging application. Common imaging sensors measure the number of photons impinging over a dense grid of photodetectors in order to produce an image similar to what is perceived by the human visual system. Different applications focus on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum not visible by the human visual system, and thus require different sensing technologies to form the image. In all cases, even with the advance of ...

Maggioni, Matteo — Tampere University of Technology

Variational Sparse Bayesian Learning: Centralized and Distributed Processing

In this thesis we investigate centralized and distributed variants of sparse Bayesian learning (SBL), an effective probabilistic regression method used in machine learning. Since inference in an SBL model is not tractable in closed form, approximations are needed. We focus on the variational Bayesian approximation, as opposed to others used in the literature, for three reasons: First, it is a flexible general framework for approximate Bayesian inference that estimates probability densities including point estimates as a special case. Second, it has guaranteed convergence properties. And third, it is a deterministic approximation concept that is even applicable for high dimensional problems where non-deterministic sampling methods may be prohibitive. We resolve some inconsistencies in the literature involved in other SBL approximation techniques with regard to a proper Bayesian treatment and the incorporation of a very desired property, namely scale invariance. More specifically, ...

Buchgraber, Thomas — Graz University of Technology

Distributed Signal Processing Algorithms for Acoustic Sensor Networks

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of wireless devices for individual use to the point of being ubiquitous. Recent trends have been incorporating many of these devices (or nodes) together, which acquire signals and work in unison over wireless channels, in order to accomplish a predefined task. This type of cooperative sensing and communication between devices form the basis of a so-called wireless sensor network (WSN). Due to the ever increasing processing power of these nodes, WSNs are being assigned more complicated and computationally demanding tasks. Recent research has started to exploit this increased processing power in order for the WSNs to perform tasks pertaining to audio signal acquisition and processing forming so-called wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs). Audio signal processing poses new and unique problems when compared to traditional sensing applications as the signals observed often have ...

Szurley, Joseph — KU Leuven

Contributions to signal analysis and processing using compressed sensing techniques

Chapter 2 contains a short introduction to the fundamentals of compressed sensing theory, which is the larger context of this thesis. We start with introducing the key concepts of sparsity and sparse representations of signals. We discuss the central problem of compressed sensing, i.e. how to adequately recover sparse signals from a small number of measurements, as well as the multiple formulations of the reconstruction problem. A large part of the chapter is devoted to some of the most important conditions necessary and/or sufficient to guarantee accurate recovery. The aim is to introduce the reader to the basic results, without the burden of detailed proofs. In addition, we also present a few of the popular reconstruction and optimization algorithms that we use throughout the thesis. Chapter 3 presents an alternative sparsity model known as analysis sparsity, that offers similar recovery ...

Cleju, Nicolae — "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi

Robust Methods for Sensing and Reconstructing Sparse Signals

Compressed sensing (CS) is a recently introduced signal acquisition framework that goes against the traditional Nyquist sampling paradigm. CS demonstrates that a sparse, or compressible, signal can be acquired using a low rate acquisition process. Since noise is always present in practical data acquisition systems, sensing and reconstruction methods are developed assuming a Gaussian (light-tailed) model for the corrupting noise. However, when the underlying signal and/or the measurements are corrupted by impulsive noise, commonly employed linear sampling operators, coupled with Gaussian-derived reconstruction algorithms, fail to recover a close approximation of the signal. This dissertation develops robust sampling and reconstruction methods for sparse signals in the presence of impulsive noise. To achieve this objective, we make use of robust statistics theory to develop appropriate methods addressing the problem of impulsive noise in CS systems. We develop a generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD) ...

Carrillo, Rafael — University of Delaware

Statistical Signal Processing for Data Fusion

In this dissertation we focus on statistical signal processing for Data Fusion, with a particular focus on wireless sensor networks. Six topics are studied: (i) Data Fusion for classification under model uncertainty; (ii) Decision Fusion over coherent MIMO channels; (iii) Performance analysis of Maximum Ratio Combining in MIMO decision fusion; (iv) Decision Fusion over non-coherent MIMO channels; (v) Decision Fusion for distributed classification of multiple targets; (vi) Data Fusion for inverse localization problems, with application to wideband passive sonar platform estimation. The first topic of this thesis addresses the problem of lack of knowledge of the prior distribution in classification problems that operate on small data sets that may make the application of Bayes' rule questionable. Uniform or arbitrary priors may provide classification answers that, even in simple examples, may end up contradicting our common sense about the problem. Entropic ...

Ciuonzo, Domenico — Second University of Naples

MIMO Radars with Sparse Sensing

Multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) radars achieve high resolution of arrival direction by transmitting orthogonal waveforms, performing matched filtering at the receiver end and then jointly processing the measurements of all receive antennas. This dissertation studies the use of compressive sensing (CS) and matrix completion (MC) techniques as means of reducing the amount of data that need to be collected by a MIMO radar system, without sacrificing the system’s good resolution properties. MIMO radars with sparse sensing are useful in networked radar scenarios, in which the joint processing of the measurements is done at a fusion center, which might be connected to the receive antennas via a wireless link. In such scenarios, reduced amount of data translates into bandwidth and power saving in the receiver-fusion center link. First, we consider previously defined CS-based MIMO radar schemes, and propose optimal transmit antenna ...

Sun, Shunqiao — Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Bayesian Compressed Sensing using Alpha-Stable Distributions

During the last decades, information is being gathered and processed at an explosive rate. This fact gives rise to a very important issue, that is, how to effectively and precisely describe the information content of a given source signal or an ensemble of source signals, such that it can be stored, processed or transmitted by taking into consideration the limitations and capabilities of the several digital devices. One of the fundamental principles of signal processing for decades is the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, which states that the minimum number of samples needed to reconstruct a signal without error is dictated by its bandwidth. However, there are many cases in our everyday life in which sampling at the Nyquist rate results in too many data and thus, demanding an increased processing power, as well as storage requirements. A mathematical theory that emerged ...

Tzagkarakis, George — University of Crete

Theoretical aspects and real issues in an integrated multiradar system

In the last few years Homeland Security (HS) has gained a considerable interest in the research community. From a scientific point of view, it is a difficult task to provide a definition of this research area and to exactly draw up its boundaries. In fact, when we talk about the security and the surveillance, several problems and aspects must be considered. In particular, the following factors play a crucial role and define the complexity level of the considered application field: the number of potential threats can be high and uncertain; the threat detection and identification can be made more complicated by the use of camouflaging techniques; the monitored area is typically wide and it requires a large and heterogeneous sensor network; the surveillance operation is strongly related to the operational scenario, so that it is not possible to define a ...

Fortunati Stefano — University of Pisa

Transmission strategies for wireless energy harvesting nodes

Over the last few decades, transistor miniaturization has enabled a tremendous increase in the processing capability of commercial electronic devices, which, combined with the reduction of production costs, has tremendously fostered the usage of the Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) both in terms of number of users and required data rates. In turn, this has led to a tremendous increment in the energetic demand of the ICT sector, which is expected to further grow during the upcoming years, reaching unsustainable levels of greenhouse gas emissions as reported by the European Council. Additionally, the autonomy of battery operated devices is getting reduced year after year since battery technology has not evolved fast enough to cope with the increase of energy consumption associated to the growth of the node’s processing capability. Energy harvesting, which is known as the process of collecting energy ...

Gregori, Maria — Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya

Decentralized Estimation Under Communication Constraints

In this thesis, we consider the problem of decentralized estimation under communication constraints in the context of Collaborative Signal and Information Processing. Motivated by sensor network applications, a high volume of data collected at distinct locations and possibly in diverse modalities together with the spatially distributed nature and the resource limitations of the underlying system are of concern. Designing processing schemes which match the constraints imposed by the system while providing a reasonable accuracy has been a major challenge in which we are particularly interested in the tradeoff between the estimation performance and the utilization of communications subject to energy and bandwidth constraints. One remarkable approach for decentralized inference in sensor networks is to exploit graphical models together with message passing algorithms. In this framework, after the so-called information graph of the problem is constructed, it is mapped onto the ...

Uney, Murat — Middle East Technical University

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