Digital design and experimental validation of high-performance real-time OFDM systems

The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation is to address a number of challenges encountered in the digital baseband design of modern and future wireless communication systems. The fast and continuous evolution of wireless communications has been driven by the ambitious goal of providing ubiquitous services that could guarantee high throughput, reliability of the communication link and satisfy the increasing demand for efficient re-utilization of the heavily populated wireless spectrum. To cope with these ever-growing performance requirements, researchers around the world have introduced sophisticated broadband physical (PHY)-layer communication schemes able to accommodate higher bandwidth, which indicatively include multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver and are capable of delivering improved spectral efficiency by applying interference management policies. The merging of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) schemes with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) offers a flexible signal processing substrate to implement ...

Font-Bach, Oriol — Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC)


System-Level Modeling and Optimization of MIMO HSDPA Networks

Interaction between the Medium Access Control (MAC)-layer and the physical-layer routines is one of the basic concepts of modern wireless networks. Physical-layer dependent resource allocation and scheduling guarantee efficient network utilization. Accordingly, classical link-level analyses, focusing only on the physical-layer are not sufficient anymore for optimum transceiver structure and algorithm development. This thesis presents the development and application of a system-level description suitable for the downlink of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) enhanced High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), with particular focus on the Double Transmit Antenna Array (D-TxAA) transmission mode. The system-level model allows for investigating and evaluating transmission systems and algorithms in the context of cellular networks. Two separate models are proposed to obtain a complete system-level description: (i) a link-quality model, analytically describing the MIMO HSDPA link quality in a so-called equivalent fading parameter structure, and (ii) a link-performance model, ...

Wrulich, Martin — Vienna University of Technology


Performance Evaluation of Practical OFDM Systems with Imperfect Synchronization

This work aims to expose the potential performance loss due to synchronization errors in the downlink of the two major cellular standards of OFDM systems, i.e., the WiMAX OFDM physical layer and the LTE. Different to most results in literature, the physical layer coded throughput is utilized as the major performance measure. The influence of an imperfect carrier frequency synchronization or symbol timing is evaluated via analytical modeling and standard compliant link level simulations. In the frequency aspect, a modified differential estimator for the residual frequency offset in WiMAX is proposed. It is shown that the theoretical performance of such an estimator approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound and provides a significant gain in terms of the mean squared error. However, such an improvement becomes negligible in terms of the coded throughput. Therefore, a throughput loss prediction model is proposed for ...

Wang, Qi — Vienna University of Technology


Limited Feedback Transceiver Design for Downlink MIMO OFDM Cellular Networks

Feedback in wireless communications is tied to a long-standing and successful history, facilitating robust and spectrally efficient transmission over the uncertain wireless medium. Since the application of multiple antennas at both ends of the communication link, enabling multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission, the importance of feedback information to achieve the highest performance is even more pronounced. Especially when multiple antennas are employed by the transmitter to handle the interference between multiple users, channel state information (CSI) is a fundamental prerequisite. The corresponding multi-user MIMO, interference alignment and coordination techniques are considered as a central part of future cellular networks to cope with the growing inter-cell-interference, caused by the unavoidable densification of base stations to support the exponentially increasing demand on network capacities. However, this vision can only be implemented with efficient feedback algorithms that provide accurate CSI at the transmitter without ...

Schwarz, Stefan — Vienna University of Technology


System Level Modeling and Evaluation of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

The cumulative impact of co-channel interferers, commonly referred to as aggregate network interference, is one of the main performance limiting factors in today’s mobile cellular networks. Thus, its careful statistical description is decisive for system analysis and design. A system model for interference analysis is required to capture essential network variation effects, such as base station deployment- and signal propagation characteristics. Furthermore it should be simple and tractable so as to enable first-order insights on design fundamentals and rapid exchange of new ideas. Interference modeling has posed a challenge ever since the establishment of traditional macro cellular deployments. The recent emergence of heterogeneous network topologies complicates matters by contesting many established aspects of time-honored approaches. This thesis presents user-centric system models that enable to investigate scenarios with an asymmetric interference impact. The first approach simplifies the interference analysis in a ...

Taranetz, Martin — Technische Universität Wien


Efficient Communication over Wireless Channels: New Results in Equalization, Diversity and Interference Alignment

When data is transmitted over the wireless communication channel, the transmit signal experiences distortion depending on the channel¢s fading characteristics. On the one hand, this calls for efficient processing at the receiver to mitigate the detrimental effects of the channel and maximize data throughput. On the other hand, the diversity inherently present in these channels can be leveraged with appropriate transmit processing in order to increase the reliability of the transmission link. Recently, in [1] it was shown that the channel characteristics can be exploited to maximize the total data throughput in the interference channel where multiple user pairs rely on the same resource to communicate among themselves. In this PhD dissertation, we first propose novel equalizer designs for frequency selective channels. We then present new results on the diversity gain of equalizers in fading channels when appropriate precoding is ...

Shenoy, Shakti Prasad — EURECOM/Mobile Communications


Measurement-based Performance Evaluation of WiMAX and HSDPA

In this work, a realistic physical layer performance evaluation of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) as well as IEEE 802.16-2004, commonly referred to as Worldwide Inter-operability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), is provided. The performance evaluation is carried out in two measurement campaigns that took place in an alpine and an urban environment. Both, WiMAX and HSDPA use adaptive modulation and coding to adapt the channel coding rate and the size of the symbol alphabet to the current channel conditions. Additionally, both systems allow for multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas to increase the spectral efficiency and the reliability of the transmission. While WiMAX utilizes multiple transmit antennas by simple Alamouti space-time coding, HSDPA implements a closed-loop system with channel adaptive spatial precoding. The necessary, quantized channel information is fed back from the user equipment to the base station. The ...

Mehlfuehrer, Christian — Vienna University of Technology


An Energy Aware Framework for Mobile Computing

Since their inception, energy dissipation has been a critical issue for mobile computing systems. Although a large research investment in low-energy circuit design and hardware level energy management has led to more energy-efficient architectures, even then, there is a growing realization that the contribution to energy conservation should be more rigorously considered at higher levels of the systems, such as operating systems and applications. This dissertation puts forth the claim that energy-aware compilation to improve appli- cation quality both in terms of execution time and energy consumption is essential for a high performance mobile computing embedded system design. Our work is a design paradigm shift from the logic gate being the basic silicon computation unit, to an in- struction running on an embedded processor. Multimedia DSP processors are the most lucrative choice to a mobile computing system design for their ...

Azeemi, N. Zafar — Vienna University of Technology


System Level Analysis of LTE-Advanced: with Emphasis on Multi-Component Carrier Management

This PhD thesis focuses on system level analysis of Multi-Component Carrier (CC) management for Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced. Cases where multiple CCs are aggregated to form a larger bandwidth are studied. The analysis is performed for both local area and wide area networks. In local area, Time Division Duplexing (TDD) is chosen as the duplexing mode in this study. The performance with different network time synchronization levels is compared, and it is observed that achieving time synchronization significantly improves the uplink performance without penalizing much of the downlink transmission. Next the technique of frequency reuse is investigated. As compared to reuse-1, using different frequency channels in neighboring cells reduces the interference to offer large performance gain. To avoid the frequency planning, several decentralized algorithms are developed for interference reduction. Compared to the case of reuse-1, they achieve a gain of ...

Wang, Yuanye — Aalborg University


Pilot Pattern Optimization for Doubly-Selective MIMO OFDM Transmissions

Current wireless transmission systems are far from their theoretically achievable performance bounds. The main reason behind this is a conservative approach of the standardization organizations. Most current standards for wireless communication employ Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation as it offers a high spectral effciency. These systems require the insertion of at the receiver known symbols in order to estimate the transmission channel. These so-called pilot-symbols consume available resources such as power and bandwidth, and therefore eff ectively decrease spectral effciency. This thesis deals with pilot pattern optimization for MIMO OFDM transmission systems. First, an optimal power distribution among pilot- and data-symbols is considered. The post-equalization Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) is maximized in order to deliver optimal performance. The optimal power o set between the pilot- and data-symbols depends on the ratio between the number ...

Šimko, Michal — Vienna University of Technology


Modeling and Digital Mitigation of Transmitter Imperfections in Radio Communication Systems

To satisfy the continuously growing demands for higher data rates, modern radio communication systems employ larger bandwidths and more complex waveforms. Furthermore, radio devices are expected to support a rich mixture of standards such as cellular networks, wireless local-area networks, wireless personal area networks, positioning and navigation systems, etc. In general, a "smart'' device should be flexible to support all these requirements while being portable, cheap, and energy efficient. These seemingly conflicting expectations impose stringent radio frequency (RF) design challenges which, in turn, call for their proper understanding as well as developing cost-effective solutions to address them. The direct-conversion transceiver architecture is an appealing analog front-end for flexible and multi-standard radio systems. However, it is sensitive to various circuit impairments, and modern communication systems based on multi-carrier waveforms such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple ...

Kiayani, Adnan — Tampere University of Technology


Advanced Multi-Dimensional Signal Processing for Wireless Systems

The thriving development of wireless communications calls for innovative and advanced signal processing techniques targeting at an enhanced performance in terms of reliability, throughput, robustness, efficiency, flexibility, etc.. This thesis addresses such a compelling demand and presents new and intriguing progress towards fulfilling it. We mainly concentrate on two advanced multi-dimensional signal processing challenges for wireless systems that have attracted tremendous research attention in recent years, multi-carrier Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems and multi-dimensional harmonic retrieval. As the key technologies of wireless communications, the numerous benefits of MIMO and multi-carrier modulation, e.g., boosting the data rate and improving the link reliability, have long been identified and have ignited great research interest. In particular, the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based multi-user MIMO downlink with Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) combines the twofold advantages of MIMO and multi-carrier modulation. It is the essential element ...

Cheng, Yao — Ilmenau University of Technology


Three-Dimensional Digital Waveguide Mesh Modelling for Room Acoustic Simulation

Accurate auralisation remains the Holy Grail of room acoustics. Until now the models used for room impulse response (RIR) simulation have been either impractical to use due to excessive computational loading or based upon simplified approaches, unable to provide the levels of perceptual accuracy required by many applications. An example is the archaeological acoustic investigation of the intriguing properties of Neolithic passage graves such as Newgrange. After reviewing the currently available options, this thesis concentrates on digital waveguide mesh (DWM) physical modelling, on the premise that the three-dimensional (3D) version of this technique can be developed to provide the desired accuracy with reasonable computation times. Various 3D-mesh topologies, namely rectilinear, tetrahedral, octahedral and cubic close-packed (CCP), are analysed. Room simulation packages have been implemented for the rectilinear and tetrahedral topologies. Both are capable of generating highly scalable parallel models through ...

Campos, Guilherme — University of York / Department of Electronics


Design and implementation of low complexity adaptive optical OFDM systems for software-defined transmission in elastic optical networks

Due to the increasing global IP traffic and the exponential growing demand for broadband services, optical networks are experimenting significant changes. Advanced modulation formats are being implemented at the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) level as key enablers for high data rate transmission. Whereas in the network layer, flexi Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (DWDM) grids are being investigated in order to efficiently use the optical spectrum according to the traffic demand. Enabling these capabilities makes high data rate transmission more feasible. Hence, introducing flexibility in the system is one of the main goals of this thesis. Furthermore, minimizing the cost and enhancing the Spectral Efficiency (SE) of the system are two crucial issues to consider in the transceiver design. This dissertation investigates the use of Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (O-OFDM) based either on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) or the Fast ...

Reixats, Laia Nadal — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC)


OFDM Air-Interface Design for Multimedia Communications

The aim of this dissertation is the investigation of the key issues encountered in the development of wideband radio air-interfaces. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered as the enabling technology for transmitting data at extremely high rates over time-dispersive radio channels. OFDM is a transmission scheme, which splits up the data stream, sending the data symbols simultaneously at a drastically reduced symbol rate over a set of parallel sub-carriers. The first part of this thesis deals with the modeling of the time-dispersive and frequency-selective radio channel, utilizing second order Gaussian stochastic processes. A novel channel measurement technique is developed, in which the RMS delay spread of the channel is estimated from the level-crossing rate of the frequency-selective channel transfer function. This method enables the empirical channel characterization utilizing simplified non-coherent measurements of the received power versus frequency. Air-interface and multiple ...

Witrisal, Klaus — Delft University of Technology

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